Indian Corn & the American Colonists
A great field of tall Indian corn waving its stately and luxuriant green blades, its graceful spindles, and glossy silk under the hot August sun, should be not only a beautiful sight to every American, but a suggestive one; one to set us thinking of all that Indian corn means to us in our history. It was a native of American soil at the settlement of this country, and under full and thoroughly intelligent cultivation by the Indians, who were also native sons of the New World. Its abundance, adaptability, and nourishing qualities not only saved the colonists’ lives, but altered many of their methods of living, especially their manner of cooking and their tastes in food. http://historiccookingschool.com/indian-corn/
What is Nocake/Nookick: This preparation of corn was called nocake or nookick. An old writer named Wood thus defined it: “It is Indian corn parched in the hot ashes, the ashes being sifted from it; it is afterwards beaten to powder and put into a long leatherne bag trussed at the Indian’s backe like a knapsacke, out of which they take three spoonsful a day.” It was held to be the most nourishing food known, and in the smallest and most condensed form. Both Indians and white men usually carried it in a pouch when they went on long journeys, and mixed it with snow in the winter and water in summer. Gookin says it was sweet, toothsome, and hearty. With only this nourishment the Indians could carry loads “fitter for elephants than men.” Roger Williams says a spoonful of this meal and water made him many a good meal. When we read this we are not surprised that the Pilgrims could keep alive on what is said was at one time of famine their food for a day, & five kernels of corn apiece. The apostle Eliot, in his Indian Bible, always used the word nookick for the English words flour or meal.
Nookick, also called “Journey cakes, noocake, nocake, and mealcake”, consists of ground parched corn mixed with enough sugar that the resulting meal is almost, but not quite, too sweet to eat from the bag. Nookick is almost 100 % carbohydrates, the sugar providing simple carbohydrate for quick energy, and the parched corn meal providing complex carbs for the longer term.
Native Americans in RI and CT say that the NOKA name came from a man by the name of CHAGUM (our NA ancestor’s surname) who sold these “journey cakes” to the public. His nick-name became NOCAKE which he then used as his surname. (Another spelling – Nokegg) The name was later changed to NOKA. The NOKAs were prominent in the dealings of the Narragansett tribe from the early 1700’s on.
Joseph Nocake’s enlisted on 16 Mar 1777 and by the records he died during the war – James Nocake’s enlisted on March 6, 1780 unknown of what happened to James (still searching)
They were both in the 2nd Rhode Island Regiment which later became 11th Continental Regiment
Note from Coni: My research has lead me to believe that Joseph & James Nocake’s are the descendants of Samuell Shawgum/Chagum whom I believe is son of Great James Shawgum/Chagum (many have tried to link James of Barkhamsted to Samuell as father – I believe this to be incorrect and believe James of Barkhamsted is indeed brother to Samuel – both sons of Great Jame Shawgum/Chagum) – after Samuell stole the canoe on Block Island to try to escape he finally did and once on the main land changed his name to Nocake’s which later become the Noka’s of the Narragansett lines. I have a couple of documents that state the Noka name was once Chagum to back this up~
The Continental Army was formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. The Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and other troops that remained under control of the individual states. General George Washington was the Commander-in-Chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. The 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_Army
Rhode Island Line: 3 regiments. These regiments were commanded by
Colonels Varnum, Hitchcock, and Church
6th (Greene’s) Brigade (Brigadier General Nathanael Greene)
Varnum’s Regiment (Rhode Island). Colonel James Mitchell Varnum. (Designated the 9th Continental Regiment in 1776).
Hitchcock’s Regiment (Rhode Island). Colonel Daniel Hitchcock. (Designated the 11th Continental Regiment in 1776).
Church’s Regiment (Rhode Island). Colonel Thomas Church. (Disbanded December 31, 1775).
^ Wright, Continental Army, 25.
^ Wright, Continental Army, 71.
^ Fitzpatrick, Writings, III:302-304.
^ Wright, Continental Army, 82.
Wright, Robert K. The Continental Army. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1983.
2nd Rhode Island Regiment – From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2nd Rhode Island Regiment which later became 11th Continental Regiment
Active: 1775-1781 Allegiance: Continental Congress of the United States Type: Infantry
Part of: Rhode Island Line
Engagements: Siege of Boston
New York and New Jersey Campaign
Battle of the Assunpink Creek
Battle of Princeton
Battle of Red Bank
Siege of Fort Mifflin
Battle of Monmouth
Battle of Rhode Island
Battle of Springfield
Commanders Notable – commanders :Colonel Daniel Hitchcock
Colonel Israel Angell
Boston campaign, 1775-1776
American Revolutionary War units of the United States
The 2nd Rhode Island Regiment also known as Hitchcock’s Regiment was authorized on 6 May 1775 under Colonel Daniel Hitchcock in the Rhode Island Army of Observation and was organized on 8 May 1775 as eight companies of volunteers from Providence County of the colony of Rhode Island. As part of a brigade organized under Nathanael Greene, the unit participated in the Siege of Boston during the remainder of 1775. Some elements accompanied Benedict Arnold’s expedition to Quebec late in the year. The unit was renamed the 11th Continental Regiment on the first day 1776.
In its new designation, the regiment fought in the New York and New Jersey campaign starting in August 1776. After retreating across New Jersey, the unit was renamed the 2nd Rhode Island Regiment and fought at Assunpink Creek and Princeton in early January. Hitchcock died soon after and the 2nd Regiment was ordered away to defend the Hudson River valley. In September 1777 the regiment, now under Colonel Israel Angell, was recalled to the main army for the Philadelphia Campaign. With the 1st Rhode Island, it won a victory at Red Bank in October 1777. Portions of the unit defended Fort Mifflin where the 2nd Regiment’s Major Simeon Thayer assumed command of the fort near the end of the siege.
In 1778 the regiment fought at the battles of Monmouth and Rhode Island. In June of the following year it was in the thick of action at Springfield in New Jersey. On 1 January 1781, the regiment was consolidated with the 1st Regiment and the new unit was renamed the Rhode Island Regiment. For the unit’s subsequent history, see the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
The regiment was adopted into the Continental Army on 14 June 1775. The regiment was re-organized to ten companies on 28 June 1775 and assigned to Greene’s Brigade on 22 July 1775. The regiment was re-organized as the 11th Continental Regiment on 1 January 1776. The regiment would see action at Roxbury, Massachusetts during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The regiment was re-organized as the 2nd Rhode Island Regiment after the death of Colonel Daniel Hitchcock on 13 January 1777. In late 1777 it fought at the Battle of Red Bank and Major Simeon Thayer of the 2nd led the defenders during the latter part of the Siege of Fort Mifflin. The 2nd Rhode Island Regiment served to February 1781, having distinguished itself at the Battles of Monmouth, Rhode Island, and Springfield with several other skirmishes and minor engagements. In February 1781, the 2nd Rhode Island Regiment was combined with the remnants of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment to form the Rhode Island Regiment (1781-1783).
Designation Date Brigade Department
Hitchcock’s Regiment 8 May 1775 none none
Hitchcock’s Regiment 22 July 1775 Greene’s Main Army
11th Continental Regiment 1 January 1776 Greene’s Main Army
11th Continental Regiment 12 August 1776 Nixon’s Main Army
11th Continental Regiment 22 December 1776 Hitchcock’s Main Army
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 1 January 1777 Hitchcock’s Main Army
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 13 January 1777 none Main Army
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 12 March 1777 none Highlands
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 10 July 1777 Rhode Island Highlands
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 14 September 1777 Rhode Island Main Army
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 19 July 1778 1st Massachusetts Main Army
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 21 July 1778 Rhode Island Eastern
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 17 November 1779 Stark’s Main Army
2nd Rhode Island Regiment 1 January 1781 Stark’s consolidated
Notes: ^ Wright, 229
Archambault, Alan H. “The Second Rhode Island Regiment of the Continental Line 1775-1777.” Military Collector and Historian, 28 (Fall 1976), p. 133.
Archambault, Alan H. and Marko Zlatich. “Rhode Island Regiment, 1781-1783.” Military Collector and Historian, 36 (Summer 1984), p. 77.
Boyle, Joseph Lee “Death Seem’d to Stare”: The New Hampshire And Rhode Island Regiments at Valley Forge Clearfield Co, 1995 ISBN 0-8063-5267-1
Brown, Anne S. K. “Rhode Island Uniforms in the Revolution.” Military Collector and Historian, 10 (Spring 1958), pp. 1-10.
Gardiner, Asa B. The Rhode Island Line in the Continental Army and Its Society of Cincinnati. Providence: Providence Press Co., 1878.
Hitchcock, Dan. “So Few the Brave (The Second Rhode Island 1777-1781).” Military Collector and Historian, 30 (Spring 1978), pp. 18-22.
Lovell, Louise Lewis and Eben Putnam. Israel Angell, colonel of the 2nd Rhode Island regiment. [New York: The Knickerbocker press (G.P. Putnam’s sons), 1921.
McGuire, Thomas J. (2007). The Philadelphia Campaign, Volume II. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0206-5.
Walker, Anthony. So Few The Brave (Rhode Island Continentals 1775-1783). Newport: Seafield Press, 1981.
Wright, Richard K. (1983). “Lineage”. The Continental Army. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 60-4. Retrieved 26 June 2006.
2nd Rhode Island Regiment Interview (video)
Bibliography of the Continental Army in Rhode Island compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History
Major Thomas Hughes of Centreville, Warwick, RI
Born: 30 May 1752, son of Joseph & Mary Hughes
Died: Centreville, Warwick, RI, 10 December 1821, age 69 years
Buried: Greenwood Cemetery #59, Fairview Ave., Phoenix, Coventry, RI
Married: Providence, RI, 27 February 1782, Welthian Greene, daughter of Col. Christopher Greene, KIA 1781, the Hero of Redbank
Revolutionary War Service1
June 1775 – November 1783
Ten Battle Stars
June 1775 Ensign, age 23
Thomas Church´s 3rd Rhode Island Regiment, Nathanael Greene´s Brigade
Siege of Boston, June-December 1776
January 1776 Lieutenant, age 24
Daniel Hitchcock´s 11th Continental Line Regiment, Nathanael Greene´s Brigade
Siege of Boston, January-March 1776
Battle of Long Island, 27 August 1776, Wounded in Action
Battle of White Plains, 28 Oct 1776
Second Battle of Trenton, 2 January 1777
Battle of Princeton, 3 January 1777
January 1777 Lieutenant, age 25, promoted Captain, November 1777, age 26
Israel Angell´s 2nd Rhode Island Continental Line, James Mitchell Varnum´s Brigade
Battle of Red Bank (Fort Mercer), 22 October 1777
Battle of Monmouth, 28 June 1778
Battle of Rhode Island, 29 August 1778
Battle of Springfield, 23 June 1780,
January 1781 Captain, age 29, promoted Brevet Major, 30 September 1783, age 31
Jeremiah Olney´s Consolidated 1st Rhode Island Continental Line
Yorktown Campaign, May-October, 1781,
November 1783 Retired, age 31
Major Thomas Hughes was a charter member of the Society of the Cincinnati. His hereditary membership in the society is not represented today, and he may not have living descendants.
1 So Few The Brave, Anthony Walker (1981), pp. 103, 115-117, 136-138, 158;
2. Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental Army, Francis B. Heitman (1914), p. 307