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1700’s -2015 – Barkhamsted Lighthouse Newspaper Articles – All in one place!

I have finally added all the Barkhamsted Lighthouse Newspaper Articles to one area (Donated by several different people)

Photo’s of articles can be found on my Pinterest board:

http://www.pinterest.com/conidubois/barkhamsted-lighthouse-village-newspaper-articles/

Books on James Chagum
Read these books and remember our ancestors. They relate the story of Barkhamsted, Connecticut and our ancestors who lived there. We do have a little Narragansett blood in us also.  The book, Legends of The Barkhamsted Lighthouse and Satan´s Kingdom in New Hartford by Lewis Sprauge Mills and published in 1961, by the Shoe String Press, Second Edition, describes some of our ancestors from Connecticut. This book is a long poem similar to Hiawatha. It romanticizes the story and descendants of James and Molly (Barber) Chaugham.
1. Earliest History – Geology – 480 million years ago, the African and North American geologic plates experienced a collision of cataclysmic proportions that lasted millions of years. As the African plate converged on North America thousands of miles of sediments and rock layers belonging to the pre-Atlantic Ocean, called Japetos, were compressed into the width of Connecticut. As you might imagine, towering mountains similar to the Himalayas were formed in this area. The Cameron Line is an inactive thrust fault that runs along Rt. 44 coming from New Hartford, crosses the Farmington near the Pleasant Valley bridge, and continues just east of Rt. 181 and west of the Barkhamsted Reservoir. This fault line follows the collision boarder and is similar to the San Andres fault in California. East of the Cameron Line rocks generally formed from the ancient sediments and rocks of Japetos, which metamorphosed during the great collision and were buried deep within the mountains. In the Riverton area are some of the oldest rocks on earth, which are over one billion years old and represent proto North America. All of Barkhamsted’s ledges were once deep inside mountains and have been exposed by millions of years of erosion that has removed between three and five miles of rock. The fine-grained gneiss used in building the Episcopal church in Riverton (now the Hitchcock museum), local homes, and foundations was formed from ancient North American granite that metamorphosed during the collision. These building stones were quarried from the ledges north of the Jessie Gerard trail near Big Spring in Peoples State Forest. Soapstone, used for a long time by the Indians to make bowls or other implements was also quarried in Peoples State Forest. Soapstone was formed from the ancient sea sediments. Kyanite crystals and small deposits of magnetite on and near Pine Mountain in Tunxis State Forest are gifts of the collision. Small garnets are found in the mica schist of the Hartland formation, which is common in the eastern part of our town and is metamorphosed ocean floor. Barkhamsted’s rivers and brooks follow the zones of weakness and fractures resulting from plate collision and separation. In rock cuts near dams and along the roadside you can see the layers of deformed rock telling of those great forces that shaped the foundation of our town. About one million years ago, the climate underwent a rapid change and in less than half a century Barkhamsted was covered with snowfields. As the snow depth increased, the bottom layers turned to ice and a great glacier over a mile thick was born. All of our hills and valleys were deep inside the ice and experienced major erosion as the glacier slipped towards the ocean. Around 18,000 years ago our hills began to reappear as the ice melted. But the valleys were still full of ice, higher than the hilltops, and giant rivers ran along the ridge tops. As the valleys melted out most were occupied by temporary lakes backed up by glacial dams. Rivers rushing into these lakes deposited layers of sand and gravel, which are over sixty feet deep in the area of Pleasant Valley and Stanclift Cove. In the deep quiet waters of these lakes and in depressions left in the gravel terraces along the valley walls fine silt was deposited, the origin of our clay beds. Many early brick yards and dish mills were established near these clay beds. It took until the early zings before most of our town was cleared and the glacial story was more easily read. For more information on our geologic past read The Face of Connecticut by Michael Bell (1985) and visit the Stone Museum in Peoples State Forest – http://www.stonemuseum.org to see soapstone bowls and mineral specimens and more!
2. Indians of Barkhamsted – The discovery of a high-quality Paleo point in the early zings near where Morgan Brook enters the Farmington River would indicate the first Indians entered Barkhamsted about 10,000 years ago. These early visitors were hunter-gather groups that moved regularly looking for fish, game, and harvestable plants. There is not a tribal name that we can give to these groups until the time of European contact. The point was fluted (a large flake was removed from both sides of the point leaving an obvious channel), similar to the famous Folsom points from New Mexico. The point was used on a dart that was launched by a throwing stick called an atlatl, the bow and arrow were not introduced for another 8,000 years. We refer to these early people as Paleos.  They were followed by the Archaic group, who made different types of points. Some of their bifurcated points have been recovered from the gravel terraces along the Farmington in Riverton and Pleasant Valley. The Archaic people utilized fish from the Farmington River and its tributaries, hunted the forest, and made extensive use of white oak acorns, hickory nuts, chestnuts, berries, roots, and seeds. There is good evidence that the Indians throughout southern New England used controlled burning of the forest to keep it free of brush and open enough to encourage the growth of nut trees, grasses, and berries, which fed both Indians and wild animals. This increased the animal population and brought them near the village for hunting. The Archaic people moved their villages regularly seeking sources of wood, clean sites, seasonal foods, and winter camps. Towards the end of the Archaic period, around 3,000 years ago, the native people began using a major soapstone deposit for the making of cooking bowls, smoking pipes, and jewelry. This site is located off the present-day Bronson Trail in Peoples State Forest. This deposit provided soapstone for around 1,500 years and later became a rock shelter for an Indian group from the Woodland period, who made pottery. Walter Manchester first discovered this site in 1901, and in 1948 it was fully excavated by Yale. Many of the 450 artifacts recovered are on display at the Peabody Museum in New Haven. The Pequots produced a film on soapstone bowl-making at this site, which they show at their museum in Mashantucket, Connecticut. About 2,300 years ago, new materials began to arrive from the west: corn, beans, squash, ceramics, and the bow and arrow were introduced over a period of time. The raising of crops required cleared and tended land. Old beaver meadows and sites cleared by fire made good fields. People still moved about, but more permanent villages were established and at least some people had to stay with the crops. They still changed their village sites for reasons of sanitation, wood supply, seasonal harvest, and to allow fields to rest. Some of the natural meadows mentioned in the earliest town deeds were probably the remains of Indian fields, but many had already grown back to forests. Trade was very important to these people just like it had been for all groups because materials like flint, chert, and jasper used to make points and tools were not found in Connecticut. From the late 1500s to early 1600s, new trading partners showed up in the form of European explorers and settlers. Both Europeans and Indians were eager to trade for each other’s goods, which brought the Indian population into contact with diseases for which they lacked immunity. In the early 1600s, diseases such as chicken pox, measles, and smallpox swept inland from the coast. Early records state that in the 1620s, 1 in 20 Indians survived an outbreak of chicken pox. These diseases tore apart Indian villages and social structure. Disease, combined with the Indian involvement in the European wars fought in the new world, led to a major depopulation of this area. Small family groups remained among the hills, remnants of the Tunxis tribe, which had occupied most of northwestern Connecticut. Barkhamsted, being one of the last towns to be settled, served as sanctuary for the fragments of Connecticut and Rhode Island tribes into the 1800s. Some gained the right to continue living on the land of the first proprietors by helping to clear the land, cut wood, make charcoal, and herd cattle. Others, like James Chaugham and his family, bought their land and lived among the early settlers making baskets, hunting, fishing, and doing odd jobs. Some of these people followed Samson Occum west into New York at the end of the Revolution, while others blended in to our communities where their descendents remain today.  To learn more about the Indians of Barkhamsted visit the Stone Museum in Peoples State Forest and view Doug Roberts’ collection of artifacts on the first floor of the Barkhamsted Town Hall. The Village of Outcasts, written by Kenneth Fender, Ph.D, provides good insight into James Chaugham and his Lighthouse Community.
3. Early History and Settlement: Barkhamsted was one of the last Connecticut towns to be occupied by white settlers. Many towns, with excellent coastal locations or with superior farmland or on major rivers, were settled between 1635 and 1700. With none of these advantages, Barkhamsted was not settled until the mid-1700’s and was not formally incorporated as a town until 1779. In 1732 the land making up Barkhamsted was assigned to the town of Windsor, ending a quandary that started almost 50 years earlier. The issue involved not only Barkhamsted but the entire northwest portion of the colony of Connecticut. In 1686 the colony was fearful of loosing control of these unoccupied and unassigned lands. This fear was a real possibility with the creation of the Dominion of New England by King James and the arrival of the new royal governor, Sir Edmund Andross. In an effort to prevent the loss of these lands, the Connecticut General Assembly hastily deeded all the unassigned lands over to the towns of Hartford and Windsor. The crisis was over after a few years, with a new King and with the demise of the Dominion of New England. It was expected that the emergency remedy would be undone, that Hartford and Windsor would not actually retain the large tract of land. For years, the issue was overlooked until some areas of the northwestern lands began to be settled in the early 1700’s. The ownership question had to be resolved. Probably realizing their claim was weak, Hartford and Windsor nonetheless fought for years to retain rights to the land, in the hope of possible compensation. Their hopes were realized. In a compromise adopted in 1726, the General Assembly allowed half the land to stay with Hartford and Windsor. The other half reverted back to the colony. In 1732 the Hartford and Windsor land was divided up and the boundaries set. Hartford would own Winchester, Hartland, New Hartford and the eastern half of Harwinton. Windsor got Barkhamsted, Colebrook, Torrington and the western half of Harwinton. The settlement stipulated that each taxpayer (called proprietors) would receive land in those towns in proportion to the amount of taxes he paid in 1720. Hence, Windsor needed to allocate the lands of Barkhamsted among the 108 proprietors who paid taxes in 1720. Imagine if you were one of these lucky proprietors! You now had rights to what would be a number of parcels of land in four towns including Barkhamsted. The land forming Barkhamsted was allocated to the Windsor proprietors in five divisions or lots. The first division included lots running up the center of the town, from south to north, as well as lots running up along the eastern border. Much of the central land in the first division fell between the present Center Hill Road and the East Branch of the Farmington River and therefore lies under the Barkhamsted Reservoir today. Of this division, each proprietor received a lot containing one acre for each pound (sterling) he paid in taxes. Which lot he received was determined by lottery. Each proprietor was granted one acre of the second division for every ten pounds he paid in taxes, or one-tenth the amount of land he received in the first division. This small division was located in south-central portion of the town, primarily along the West Branch of the Farmington River. The third, fourth, and fifth divisions consisted of larger lots, which were also distributed by lottery to the Windsor proprietors. The allocation of the final division was reported in June 1787. Because so much time had passed, the lots often transferred to others, either by death or sale. The town first applied for incorporation in 1774, but was not ultimately incorporated until 1779. Barkhamsted is most likely named for Berkhamsted England, a town in the rolling hills 30 miles northwest of London, from which some of our town’s earliest English settlers emigrated. The name is derived from “borough” (also “beohr” or “berg”), which means both mountain or hill as well as fortification, “ham”, meaning town (as in hamlet), and “stede,” “sted,” or “stedt,” which simply means place. In 1764, Barkhamsted, along with Winchester and Colebrook, were still classified as “towns not inhabited” though some people did live in the area. Settlement in the western part of town accelerated after the Old North Road (earlier called the New Country Road or the Great Road through the Green Woods) was cleared around 1762. Connecticut’s first census, taken in 1756, lists 18 people living in Barkhamsted, including both Caucasians and Native Americans. By 1771, the census shows 20 families, and the 1774 count was 250 inhabitants. In 1778, the petition for a second Ecclesiastical Society lists 50 families living east of the West Branch. The census of 1800 lists 1,437 residents, showing a great influx of settlers over the latter quarter of the 18th century, the Revolution and post-Revolution periods. The town’s population peaked in 1830 with 1,715 residents, before it began to drop off. The population declined steadily for over 100 years, bottoming out around 1930 with fewer than 700 residents. Since then, the population has risen sharply, climbing to the current figure of 3,600 in just seventy years. http://barkhamstedhistory.org/historyshort/#Indians%20of%20Barkhamsted
Annals and family records of Winchester, Conn.: with exercises of the centennial celebration, on the 16th and 17th days of August, 1871 by John Boyd.
(page 3 of 64)  CHAPTER IV. INDIANS – GAME – THOROUGHFARES: The Green Woods section of Litchfield County, though abounding with game, seems not to have been a permanent abiding place of the Indian, save along the Tunxis or Farmington River on the east, and the Housatonic on the western border. The Scaticoke Indians dwelt along the Housatonic, their chief residence in Kent. The Weatogues, of Simsbury, crowded out from the Tunxis valley by the white settlers, took refuge on the meadows of the Housatonic in Canaan. On the east, a small tribe, or fragment of a tribe, probably crowded out of Farmington, took up their abode in New Hartford, near the gorge where the Farmington River breaks through a mountain ridge, which spot was designated by the early settlers as ” the Kingdom,” and eventually by the specific name of ” Satan’s Kingdom.”
A portion of this tribe moved up the Farmington, to the foot of Ragged Mountain in Barkhamsted. Modern wiseacres assert that their council fire was the mythical ” Barkhamsted Light House,” of which so much has been said and so little known. The head man, or the last man of this tribe, named Chaugum, lived and reigned to near the close of the last century. His descendants in the female line, a race of bleachcd-out, basket-making, root-gathering vagabonds, with high cheek bones and bow-and-arrow eyes, have continued to dwell on the Ragged Mountain domain, and kept up the council fires until a very recent period. A daughter of Chaugum married a runaway servant of Secretary Wyllys of Hartford. They settled in the Danbury quarter of Winchester, and their descendants are the only known representatives of the aboriginal race in this town. Not a single mountain, lake, or river, bears an Indian name. The flint arrow-head is occasionally found on the intervale lands, and in considerable numbers along the south shores of Long Lake, together with some other stone implements, indicating a resort there for fishing and hunting. There was also a cleared spot around a copious spring of water on the east shore of the lake, on land of Deacon Joseph W. Hurlbut, where numerous arrow-heads have been found. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/john-boyd/annals-and-family-records-of-winchester-conn–with-exercises-of-the-centennia-dyo/page-3-annals-and-family-records-of-winchester-conn–with-exercises-of-the-centennia-dyo.shtml
Connecticut’s Lighthouse: In Connecticut, there is a small remnant group whose ancestors were called the “Lighthouse” people. They trace their ancestry to an eighteenth-century Narragansett man named Chaugham and his English-American bride who fled to the mountains to avoid her parents’ displeasure (Feder 1994). Their descendants formed a distinct group that did not fit into the neat racial categories demanded by government statistical tables. During the generations when the Chaugham family lived together in a community, they were called by a variety of ethnic labels. Lighthouse descendants no longer reside in a closed community, but they continue to recognize their separate nature. After merging into the larger community nearly a century ago, descendants kept the stories alive, assisted by occasional press and literary attention. Because race was not a legal issue in Connecticut, segregation laws did not affect the dynamics of Lighthouse history. Like other eastern non-tribal Indians, the Lighthouse people became “other free persons” for the census. In their case, however, they were able to assert and keep their Indian identity because they were free of legal stigma. http://www.heite.org/Invis.indians2.html
W. W Lee, Barkhamsted, Conn., and its Centennial, 1879 (Unknown Binding – 2001). “Barkhamsted and its Centennial” (compiled by William Wallace Lee, 1881) is a delightful book on the 100th anniversary of the incorporation of the town.  The book records the days events (September 10, 1879) when “between 4,000 and 5,000 people were assembled, and the scene was one not often witnessed amid rustic surroundings”.  Speeches given at the event are recorded here, including the historical address (covering some 58 pages!) given by Lee.  This address touches on many aspects of the town’s history including early settlers, prominent residents, the Barkhamsted Lighthouse, mills and factories, meeting houses, schools and military service.  It is a very valuable resource given the fact that it was compiled 1879 to 1881.  It is hardbound and is 178 pages in length.  This book is difficult but not impossible to find.  The Advanced Book Exchange – http://www.abebooks.com is a network of used book dealers- you might find it there.

Tavern mentioned in the Barkhamsted Centennial: by: William Wallace Lee: Historical reference to the Squires Tavern building and the surrounding area from the Barkhamsted Centennial published in 1881: From page 33 in the Centennial is part of the historical address – About a mile below, on the east side of the river, lived James Chaugham and his descendants, of whom I shall say more further on. Going south from Chaugham’s a mile or more, there is on the left hand, just as you emerge from the woods, an old cellar, where, about 1800, lived a mulatto named Bristol, or Bristor, or Ambrister, no one seems to be positive about the name. About one fourth of a mile to the south from this old cellar, and on the opposite side of the road, near two large oaks, stood the dwelling, or cabin, of Humphrey Quamino, a mulatto, who is well remembered by the old people. Peter Bennett lived and kept a tavern in the latter part of the last century where Bela Squire lived and died. It was afterwards owned by Saul Upson, who moved to Ohio about 1827. Just south of this place on the opposite side, just over the fence from the James Peter’s place, was the old Foote house, so called, when erected I do not know, but it was very old as I remember it. From this house, I am informed, Enoch Burwell moved to Ohio about 1825. A few rods south from my father’s house, and before reaching his father’s house, on the left hand, stood a slab hut, or shanty, where De Forrest lived. (then Lee goes on to other areas away from Squire’s Tavern)  The Squires Tavern is located at 100 East River Road. For more information or to register, call Charlie Lynes at 860-379-7362.  http://barkhamstedhistory.org/content/squireshistory.aspx

From the book “Barkhamsted, Conn., and its Centenial, 1879,” by W. W. Lee, Meriden Conn. 1881.
Pg 38 – THE LIGHTHOUSE SETTLEMENT: Thus with the exception of the “Lighthouse Settlement,” I have enumerated all the different names of families of the town prior to 1820, of which I have any knowledge; yet, I presume, some on will say, “You have not more than half of them,” and I answer, “Very likely. There is more about this town that I do not know of, than there is that if do.” The ancient Israelites could, on a pinch, make bricks without straw, and perhaps I could, but I cannot make an historical address which shall embrace all the names of families in this town, without devoting to it more time than I have been able to devote to the preparation of this. I suppose that James Chaugham was the first permanent settler in the town. He was a Narragansett Indian, (not of pure Indian blood), born on Block Island. While yet a young man, he adopted the manners and customs of the whites, and had shifted about until he found himself living in Wethersfield, Conn. While living there, a certain young woman name Molly Barber, who had been disappointed by parental authority interfering to prevent a union with the man of her choice, gave out that she would marry the first man that offered himself, white or black. This came to the ears of Chaugham, who promptly accepted the offer, and they were privately married. I suppose this was not far from 1740. In the spring of 1866, the widow of Joseph Elwell, Sr., told me this story, a short time beofore her death. She was born about 1782, and was a daughter of Chaugham’s third child, and it seems to me that this estimate cannot be far from correct. After the marriage, Chaugham and his wife left the town, crossed the Talcott Mountain, as it is now called, over to Farmington, and followed up the river to the Lighthouse Flat, where he doubtless considered himself safe from pursuit and molestation. Probably at that time the journey above what is now Unionville was through an unbroken forest. Here Chaugham made a clearing, built himself a cabin, and in due time reared a family of eight children. Chaugham lived to a good old age, respected by the people of the town, and died about 1800, or a little earlier. His widow died in1820, understood to be 105 years old. The children were Samuel, married Miss Green of Sharon, Conn.; Mercy, married Isaac Jacklin, of Barkhamsted; Polly, married William Wilson, of Barkhamsted; Mary, married —–Lawrence, of Barkhamsted; Hannah, married Reuben Barber, [p. 39] of Barkhamsted; Solomon, married Miss Hayes of Barkhamsted; Sally, died young, unmarried; Elizabeth, died 1854, unmarried, age 80. Wilson lived near Chaugham’s, and reared a family. The Mrs. Elwell quoted above was his daughter. She could give me but little information about the other branches of the Chaugham family. Jacklin removed ot Winchester; the other families mentioned left this part of the country long ago. Where Wilson came from, I never could learn. He was a soldier of the Revolution, and was lame. I have heard that it was caused by a cannon shot in the battle of Monmouth. He was a sort of local preacher, independent, yet leaning to the Baptists, and I am told preached for some time in the Old Hemlock meeting house in Colebrook; was considered to be a man of fair abilitites, very enthusiastic and somewhat visionary. He was held in esteem by every one as a man of worth. He died about 1830.
SPEAKING FROM THE RECORD. – In this sketch of the Chaugham family, I have copied almost verbatim from the journal which was made by Jesse Ives, wherein he kept whatever he deemed worthy of being recorded. His grandfather, with his son John, (father of Jesse) came here in 1772, and settled on Center Hill, near the Slades, and not more than two miles form Chaugham’s dwelling. In those days they would be near neighbors, and he would be apt to know all about the Chaugham family; and in this wise it is probable that Jesse Ives obtained the information which he has recorded in his journal. Chaugham was an average man, a good citizen, and lived a peaceful, honest and useful life. The talk about his being an Indian chief in war paint and nodding plume, with tomahawk, and scalping knife, is all nonsense. While Chaugham and his children were poor, as were most of the early settlers, they were well treated and respected by all the town people. Concerning the third and fourth generations of his posterity, I have not time to give a detailed report. Joseph Elwell, who married Wilson’ daughter, came from Southington, probably in the early part of the present century. Stephen Elwell was older brother of Joseph, but his wife was not of the Chaugham family. Some of the Chaugham posterity have become civilized enough to try the old game of wrestling with a wihiskey bottle, and with the same result–to get thrown–and they are not the only natives of this town who have seemed to try to see how poorly and meanly they could live, and had great success follow their efforts.

Delaware’s Invisible Indians – Connecticut’s Lighthouse – In Connecticut, there is a small remnant group whose ancestors were called the “Lighthouse” people. They trace their ancestry to an eighteenth-century Narragansett man named Chaugham and his English-American bride who fled to the mountains to avoid her parents’ displeasure (Feder 1994). Their descendants formed a distinct group that did not fit into the neat racial categories demanded by government statistical tables. During the generations when the Chaugham family lived together in a community, they were called by a variety of ethnic labels. Lighthouse descendants no longer reside in a closed community, but they continue to recognize their separate nature. After merging into the larger community nearly a century ago, descendants kept the stories alive, assisted by occasional press and literary attention. Because race was not a legal issue in Connecticut, segregation laws did not affect the dynamics of Lighthouse history. Like other eastern non-tribal Indians, the Lighthouse people became “other free persons” for the census. In their case, however, they were able to assert and keep their Indian identity because they were free of legal stigma. In the South, the different legal situation forced the Indian families to maintain a much more seprate identity. http://www.heite.org/Invis.indians2.htm
Barkhamsted Settled Late – Compared to Other Connecticut Towns, Barkhamsted Was Settled Late – The first legal settlers probably came to Barkhamsted during the 1730s following the initial division of land by the Windsor proprietors. Prior to that there were undoubtedly a few squatters, timber hijackers and assorted desperados living on the fringe of society without true title to the land they occupied. By 1760 Barkhamsted still had much of its land unoccupied, but had sufficient population that it could be considered a settled town, although it would be almost 20 more years before it was officially incorporated as a Connecticut township in 1779. From our perspective today, the early pioneers carving out a new life in the wilderness that was Barkhamsted did so ages ago in the deep reaches of our past. But compare the settlement of Barkhamsted with the other towns in the state of Connecticut. It quickly becomes clear that Barkhamsted was not only settled late compared to other towns, it was just about the last area in the entire state to be settled. One way to view the settlement of Connecticut is in three phases and Barkhamsted was definitely in the third phase. The first towns to form were along the coastline and major river valleys from 1635 to the 1670s (for example Windsor, Hartford, Wethersfield, New Haven and New London). Later, from the 1680s to the mid 1730s the interior uplands and secondary river valleys were settled (for example Waterbury, Windham and Litchfield). In the third phase extending from the late 1730s to about 1760, the northwest section of the state was settled (for example New Hartford, Salisbury and Barkhamsted) plus some other pockets that filled out the modern borders of Connecticut. If we use 1760 as the date of settlement for Barkhamsted, the town was at the tail end of the last wave. Why was Barkhamsted one of the last towns in Connecticut to be settled? Was it because the town was far removed from other settled areas? Probably not, since two older towns are close neighbors of Barkhamsted, these being Simsbury (1670) and New Hartford (1738). Was it because Barkhamsted was on the edge of the howling wilderness? Probably not, since even Salisbury, in the far northwest corner of the state, was incorporated twenty years before Barkhamsted was settled. It is very possible that the answer may be found in the perceived quality of Barkhamsted land for farming. During the 1600s and 1700s well before the growth of industry, farming was king: it was the primary occupation by far. Almost everyone farmed for a cash crop and/or for their own table. You could not only stay alive by farming, with hard work and some luck you could get rich by farming, a situation that we find hard to appreciate today. The colonists were very perceptive when it came to evaluating land quality for farming, and apparently Barkhamsted did not make the cut. This is not surprising, since Barkhamsted is noted for its quantity of hilly, rock infested land of poor soil quality. New settlers moved first to areas with better land and better soil, bypassing Barkhamsted until virtually all other towns in Connecticut had been established. http://barkhamstedhistory.org/content/historicaltopiclatesettlement.aspx

II. The Story of The Barkhamsted Lighthouse´´ and of the Early Settlers — A Short History of Riverton, Conn.  by Edmund L. Smiley, M.A. (Boston University) ( Published by the Author, August 25, 1934) Our very first settler was an Indian. In 1740, or thereabout, there lived in Wethersfield a Narragansett Indian youth whose birthplace had been Block Island, but who had made his way to Wethersfield, and had adopted the ways of white people, and to some extent had established himself in their regard. There also lived in Wethersfield at the time a maiden named Molly Barber, who had been forbidden by her father to marry the man of her choice – and who was so filled with rage at his interference that she vowed she would marry the first man who proposed to her — no matter what manner of man he might be. The Indian youth from Block Island – whose name was James Chaugham (usually pronounced “Shawm´´ or “Shawn”) – saw his opportunity and proposed to Molly Barber forthwith. They were promptly married; and, fearing ostracism or desiring privacy, they journeyed into the northern wilderness and settled upon the east bank of the West Branch of the Farmington River at a point two miles south of Riverton near what is now the Whittemore Camping Ground in the People´s Forest. Here they built a log cabin, and established the first home ever located in the township of Barkhamsted. They were blessed with eight children, six of whom married. They have many descendants. Long afterward a turnpike or toll-road was built along the bank of the river, which ran directly by the Shawn dwelling. Stage drivers, at nightfall, as they made their way along this turnpike, journeying southward from the Albany road would watch for the light streaming through the chinks in the Shawn cabin, and would shout´ to their passengers: “There´s Barkhamsted light-house; only five miles more to New Hartford – the end of the route!´´
IX. Concluding Notes and Acknowledgments – This is Riverton´s first printed history. Its sources have been: Centennial and Sesquicentennial Volumes of Barkhamsted history published by William Wallace Lee and Orville H. Ripley, respectively; Barber´s Connecticut Historical Collections, published 1836; Lee´s List of Barkhamsted Soldiers; J. W. Lewis & Co.´s History of Litchfield County; The Episcopal Parish Record dating from 1828, loaned by Hon. Leon A. Coe; Congregational Parish Record, loaned by Mrs. Minnie Rowley, clerk of the church; the Record of Hitchcocksville Burying `Ground Proprietors, also loaned by Mrs. Rowley; Charles R. Hale´s “Headstone Inscriptions, Town of Barkhamsted, 1933; and personal recollections, photographs and other data, furnished by Rev. Dr. Sherrod Soule, Hartford, Mrs. Mabel Roberts Moore of Hartford, Mr. Irving `Manchester of Winsted, Mr. Frank Chapin of New Hartford, Mr. Frank Alford of New Britain, Mr. George Godard, State Librarian, and Mr. Carleton S. Roberts, Hon. Laurence H. Roberts, Mr. Clarence E. Ward, Mr. Byron Tiffany, Mr. Homer Deming and many others in and near Riverton. The author of this history hereby offers grateful acknowledgment to all who have assisted him in any way. If readers of this short history are as thrilled by Riverton´s story as the writer has been, he will feel well repaid for the effort of telling It. http://history.rays-place.com/ct/riverton.htm#II

NOTES FROM THE WINSTED AND WINCHESTER HISTORY, REPRINT – Chaugum was the founder of the tribe he was the only genuine Indian of the settlement – one of his daughters eloped with Isaac Jacklyn and settled on the Danbury Quarter Road which runs easterly from near the old district schoolhouse -Jacklyn was said to have been a servant in the family of Secretary Wyllys of Hartford, running away to join some outlaw band that formed the “Lighthouse Tribe” -one of his daughters married Elwell of the Lighthouse Tribe -Isaac’s son, John, who died in 1850, inherited his father’s farm, his children were- -Isaac, who lived in Colebrook on the Flag Hill Farm Road near its intersection with Green Woods Turnpike -Emmeline, his daughter, married Noah Barber, a teamster, long in the employ of the Hurlbut Brothers of Winchester, hauling merchandise to Boston and New Haven and return -Indian facial characteristics were plainly recognizable in his daughter, Jane Barber, who lived for many years in a house near the original Isaac Jacklyn farm. There is a plaque nearby which reads:  THIS PORTION OF THE PEOPLE’S FOREST WAS GIVEN BY THE CONNECTICUT DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1929 NEAR THIS SPOT WAS THE SITE OF AN INDIAN VILLAGE –  And another quote from an unknown source, mentioning Chaugum Lookout above the Barkhamsted Lighthouse, “he built a signal fire on Great Rock to warn the settlers in New Hartford of an impending attack by the Indians of Satan’s Kingdom.” http://www.geocities.com/dviper1978/investigation107.html
Lighthouse Tribe of Barkhamsted, Connecticut Some of my MOST romantic ancestors are from Barkhamsted, CT. They were a quiet little community in the hills of Connecticut. Here is there story… It all starts with JAMES CHAUGHUM and MOLLY BARBER. James was born to Samuel & Priscilla Chaughum about 1710 on Block Island, Rhode Island. James went to worked as a gardener for Molly’s father. Molly was born in Ireland about 1714. Her father’s name could be Peter Barber, but it is unknown. It is unknown when they came to Wethersfield, CT. The story goes that Molly had many male callers, she fell in love with a gentleman caller, and her father denied them to get married and locked her up on their grounds, the gentleman then moved out west. James seeing Molly so sad gave her a rose from the garden and a friendship blossomed. They eventually fell in love and decided to run away so they could be together. Molly’s angered father chased them from Wethersfield, CT into an Indian village near Barkhamsted, were he passed right by Molly and didn’t even recognize her. Molly and James then settled in the mountain range around Barkhamsted where they flourished. They had 8 children in all; Sally, Samuel, Solomon, Meribah (Mary), Hannah Sands, Mercy, Mary (Polly), and Elizabeth. Samuel married a Miss. Green, Solomon married a Miss. Hayes, Meribah (Mary) married Samuel Lawerence, Hannah Sands married Ruben Barber in 1784, Mercy married Isaac Jacklyn, Mary (Polly) married William Wilson before 1797. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mypages/Lighthouse%20Tribe/Lighthouse.html
Connecticut’s Lighthouse: In Connecticut, there is a small remnant group whose ancestors were called the “Lighthouse” people. They trace their ancestry to an eighteenth-century Narragansett man named Chaugham and his English-American bride who fled to the mountains to avoid her parents’ displeasure (Feder 1994). Their descendants formed a distinct group that did not fit into the neat racial categories demanded by government statistical tables. During the generations when the Chaugham family lived together in a community, they were called by a variety of ethnic labels. Lighthouse descendants no longer reside in a closed community, but they continue to recognize their separate nature. After merging into the larger community nearly a century ago, descendants kept the stories alive, assisted by occasional press and literary attention. Because race was not a legal issue in Connecticut, segregation laws did not affect the dynamics of Lighthouse history. Like other eastern non-tribal Indians, the Lighthouse people became “other free persons” for the census. In their case, however, they were able to assert and keep their Indian identity because they were free of legal stigma. http://www.heite.org/Invis.indians2.html

Newpaper Articles on James Chagum and the Barkhamsted Lighthouse Village

Note from Coni: I have created a Pinterest board for all the Barkhamsted lightouse Newspaper Articles that have been uncovered and many donated – You can view the board here:

Note from Coni: There are  References in Lewis Mills Book Legend of Barkhamsted Lighthouse and Satan’s Kingdom that reference Articles in New Hartford  Mountain County Herald Newspaper Sept 30, 1854, June 23 & 30 1855 – I have copies of these articles now~

Unknown Newspaper Article: From Mr. Jesse Ives
Unknown date
On the history of the Barkhamsted Lighthouse:
Mr. Jesse Ives, a venerable octogenarian resident of Hitchcockville, furnishes us the following manuscript.
It may be regarded as the most thorough, reliable and best history extant of the localities and characters it describes – a standard authority, in fact. The phrase “Barkhamsted Lighthouse” seems to be destined to a world- wide and time-long usance . It would be unfortunate if the phrase should carry with itself to a distant future no significance and no history. Mr. Ives, possessing within his own memory facts which but for him had been buried with the generation of which he is almost the sole survivor, has prevented such a misfortune, and conferred a favor upon countless thousands who will hear of and inquire about the “Barkhamsted Lighthouse.”

Obituary Extra – Died at Hitchcockville, Ct., January 27th, 1855 Mr. Wm Wilson, aged 57 years. There are some facts connected with this individual  which may be of interest to the future historians or antiquarian – he being known in this locality as on of the Lighthouse tribe. He was by regular succession a legitimate grandson of James Chaugum, on of the Narragansett tribe of Indians. A native of Block Island, near Newport in the state of R.I. At an early day he came to Wethersfield Ct. where he married a white woman, who had been disappointed by parental authority interfering and preventing a union with the object of her choice. After arriving at lawful age, she made the declaration that she would  marry the first offer she might have, either white or black. Mr. Chaugum offered himself, and was accepted as her husband. The tradition is, that their marriage caused much excitement in that region, as it was said that Mrs. Chaugum was from a respectable family the uproar was so great that Mr. Chaugum and his wife soon emigrated to Farmington, Ct., and from there to New Hartford, where they purchased a tract of land, as appears by the public Records of that town. From there thy removed to Barkhamsted and purchased a tract of land in 1779, on which they located. Said land is situated on and on-fourth miles southerly fro the village of Hitchcockville, on the east side of the Farmington river, and is now owned by Hiram Goodwin Esp. of Hitchcockville, For several years the place where they first built their huts was known by the name Chaugum Town, but more recently (owing to a very trivial circumstance) has been called the Lighthouse – which originated in this wise. In 1803, Mr. William Wilson, father of the subject of this notice who was a white man o some talent, had married Polly, a daughter of James Chaugham and Mary his wife, and erected a house on the Chaugum farm, near the late residence of his father-in-law, who died about the year 1791: his age is not known. Mr. Wilson erected his house to supply the place of a log hut which had rotted down: this was a  framed building and partially covered with rough boards and slabs, without windows, except the cracks or openings in the covering which admitted a plenty of air and light : there was no chimney in the house except a coarse kind of hearth in the center, there being but one room. Wood in abundance being near at hand, Mr. Wilson’s practice was when the weather was cold, to log up his fire-wood into draughts for one horse, and draw them into a pile in the center of his house, where they would continue to burn during the night, and illuminate the whole house. On once occasion, a number of young people from adjoining town of New Hartford, who had been out sleighing, returning late in the night, discovered the light streaming through the cracks and crevices, illuminating the adjoining forest;-a young lady of the party remarked that it was Barkhamsted Lighthouse, by which name the locality has been known at home and abroad for about 56 years. The writer of these sketches recollects the early settlers of Chaugum Town as it was then called. Mr. James Chaugum was a large, straight, broad-shouldered Indian: – his wife Mary, was a white women, of ordinary size; – they were reputed to be a harmless, inoffensive people, and raised a family of whom little is known more then their names, Mary Chaugum, the mother died in 1820, supposed to be 105 years of age. Samuel Chaugum the oldest son married Miss Green of Sharon Ct. and soon emigrated to parts unknown the writer has no recollection of him after his marriage, Mercy Chaugum married Isaac Jacklin (Not sure) Chaugum Town, his father was a negro and his mother was a white women, whom the writer never saw to his knowledge, but recollects the older Jacklin distinctly. Isaac Jacklin, the son, removed to Winchester a number of years since, where himself and wife both died within a few years Past.  Polly Chaugum married Mr. William Wilson an emigrant from Horsenock in Fairfield County. Nothing is known of his early history, He came here about the same time the Chaugum family did and was a man of some consequence for several years was the preacher and schoolmaster for the locality where he resided. Several persons now deceased have told the writer, that the first school which they attended was kept by Mr. Wilson in a log house belonging to Daniel Mentor and occupied by himself and family at the time. The qualifications of the teacher may be judged from the fact that in after life, in conversation with the writer, Mr. Wilson informed him that he never had the privilege of attending school s a scholar but one day in his life, and his theological attainments may be judged by his opportunities. He read the bible with much attention, and seemed to have committed a large portion of it to memory; was remarkable for the facility with which he quoted scripture, was temperate and exemplary in all the relations of life. I recollect his preaching a lecture at my grand-father’s on Center Hill, when I was about four years of age; though young I remember hearing the neighbors say that he talked very well. Subsequently I have been to what is now called Hitchcockville, and heard him preach in a barn which then belong to Mr. Henry Clinton, and stood south-eastwardly from where Mr. Lyman F. Loveland now lives: said barn has been removed several times, but is still a comfortable state of repair, being the most ancient building in the locality: it is now owned by Mr. William Gabriel-the writer remembers the old barn more then 70 years. Mr. Wilson had a number of children-His oldest daughter Polly married Joseph Elwell; Esther, the 2nd daughter, married David Haskill ; Susannah, the 3rd married Daniel F. Clarke. Mr. Wilson removed from the Lighthouse to Tyringham Mass in 1839 where he died from effect of a cancer in 1843. The balance of the Chaugum family are thus accounted for; James and Mary Chaugum had six daughters and two sons: Mary the 3rd daughter married a Mr. Lawrence of whom little is known; Hannah the 4th daughter married Reuben Barber a half-breed Indian: he had been in service in the Revolution, as the writer has heard him relate some of his adventures in the army; he used to play on the violin; he left the town about 60 years ago. Solomon, 2nd son of James and Mary Chaugum, married a Miss Hayes of Chaugum Town, and removed to the region then known as the Whitestown Country; some of his acquaintance discovered him among the early settlers of that region; he had assumed a different name and had become a man of consequence among his neighbors; he requested his acquaintance not to disclose his name or parentage, which was complied with and all was kept dark and for aught that is known here remains so to this day. Sally the 5th daughter of James and Mary Chaugum died single, in middle age; Elizabeth, their 6th daughter died in poor-house Dec 1854 aged 80 years. End

The Winsted Hearld – Sketches of Satan’s Kingdom –  Unknown Author
Dated: June 25, 1875 – 4 pgs
Note from Coni: I have this article on list to transcribe
A Centennial – Barkhamsted’s Celebration – A Full Abstract of the Historical Address – New Hartford Register 9/10/1879 The Story of the Lighthouse Retold – New Hartford, CT., September 10 – The old fashioned town of Barkhamsted celebrated its one hundreth birthday today with cannon firing, speeches and music by cornet bands and drum corps. The town is filled with strangers and many natives of the place who have not visited it since they went out young men and women, are here and family reunions are constituting to many the most pleasant feature of the celebration. One idea entertained by the originators of today’s observance of the centennial, was to show the world that Barkhamsted was a good place to emigrate from. That it had turned out many children who in other towns and states have been prominent in their various walks of life. The occasional jest made by newspaper writers at Barkhamsted’s expense and that of the “lighthouse,” are not relished by the residents, who fail to see anything funny about them, but think the the town people are being slurred at. They have succeeded today in arranging an elaborate clebration – a processsion of horsemen, a hundred strong, and “ancients and horribles” occurred this morning and was followed by the literary efforts, Hon. Hiram C. Brown of Riverton giving the address of welcome, W.W. Lee of Meriden the historical address and Judge Monroe E. Merrill the Oration.

The Historical Address – The chief literary feature of the exercises was the historical address by William Wallace Lee of Meriden, a native of Barkhamsted, who was one of the most active of those who originated the celebration. His address would make some ten or more columns of this paper. Of course much that is purely local in its bearing must be omitted entirely; only a synopsis can be given of the balance: We have met today to celebrate the centennial of a plain New England township. No classic ground is ours, none of the ancient sages ever dwelt among our hills or upon our river banks; No battles were ever fought within our borders except those common to all civilzed communities where spiritous liquors of some kind and two or more fools meet: no blood has flowed except from battered noses and cracked heads, the usual results of such battles. I tell you no tale of hair breath escapes from fire and flood and pestilence: only the simple story of every day men and women who won subsistence from rugged hill side and mountain top and knew by experience the worth and dignity of true manhood and womenhood. Our town lies in what for more than one hundred years was known as the “Greenwoods District,” or “western lands,” a large territory embracing within its limits what are known as the towns of Colebrook, Hartland, Winchester, Barkhamsted, Torrington, New Hartford and Harwinton. I have never been able to acertain why, in selecting a name for the town the proprietors should have made choice of the one they did: certainly it is neither enphonious nor descriptive of its scenery or soil: like the words mouth and silver it rhymes with no other in the English language. It has been said by some that it was because of the large quantities of bark which was gathered here: otherwise that it was because many of the first settlers built their houses of bark: and more of rock than wood and bark together; certainly there were more log houses than bark shanties. At the first call for a proprietors meeting it was called Berkhamsted, and it so reads until the autumn of 1755 when it is called Barkhempstead, and so continues until about 1795 when the “p” and last “a” are dropped. Mr. Lee here calls attention to the fact that with a single exception no Indian names were adopted by the early settlers; the river Tunxis only showing an Indian Derivation in its title. He continues: Some of us have seen an empire as it may be termed, grown up beyond what were almost considered as boundaries of civilization when we were young, and what was a wilderness where the savage roamed at will, is far advanced in art and science and culture, while great states and large and prosperous cities are found in regions about which we in childhood knew less that the school children of today know of the interior of Africa. Bearing in mind these rapid changes and it seems strange that for more than 100 years after Hartford, Windsor, Simsbury, Farmington, Enfield, and others had become thriving and proserous towns this large district should be almost unknown by the white man, yet such is the fact. With one exception our town was the last one incorporated out of the orgininal limits of the colony. Colebrook having been incorportated in 1786. I think our territorial limits have once been altered since the town was incorporated. Pease & Mill’s Gazetteer published in 1819 credits us with about 20,580 acres. Is was then heavily timered with pine, oak, hemlock, maple, chestnut and other valuable woods; ship builders came from Windsor, Hartford and other towns to obtain mast for the vessels they built. Long before the town was incorporated it was being stripped of its timber in a wasteful and recless manner, by which prctice its material wealth rapidly disappeared. Thousands of acres of land have never paid on per cent. on the cost of clearing, and the town would be far richer today had it been retained for the growth of timber, and much loss of temper would have been prevented by attempts to plow and hoe land that stood edgewise and needed large quantities of rock to hold it together.

In Barber’s Historical Collection, published in 1853, and also in Rose & Niles’ Gazetteer Peletiah Allen of Windsor is credited with being the first settler. Is is said he came about 1746 and built near the New Hartford line on the farm now occupied by Mr. Crose: he owed several hundred acres of land extending from the west side of Tunxis to East River. Here he lived alone for several years, but lived to see a town grow up which he prepresented in the legislature in his old age, dying in 1815; he is buried in the old yard at the center. His three sons, Peletiah, Matthew and Henry, all removed to Ohio, and I think none of ther posterity are left in town. The names of many of the old settlers were given by the speaker, who remarked that it would be seen that many of them were entirely lost in the town; the pioneers in new settlements are usually a restless, migratory class. The progress of the town was very slow, as is evidenced from the fact that though the military laws of the colony were stringent, so few were the settlers that they were not called upon to do duty until 1774. After the sackling of Danbury by the British in 1777 the feeling against the town was so intense that many of them left their homes and settled in more remote localitiesm and six of these families came to Pleasant Valley, in Barkhamsted; They were Gregorys, Weeds, Taylors (two families) Wildmans and Holcombs, A bitter feeling existed towards them by the soldiers and their children during and after the revolutionary war, and no indignities were to great to be heaped upon them. They would find their corn cut while in silk, their potoatoes pulled up while in blossom, trees mutilated, fences torn down, etc. Of all their descendants, only a few, those of Abner Taylor, remains in Connecticuts. After the surrender of Burgovneat Saratoga a portion of his army was marched through this town en route for Boston, but many deserted along the route and remained in the country. Among them were three, Shaw, Thorne and Miller, who settled on a by-road near West Hill Pond. After the incorporation of the town in 1779 the prospect became more prosperous; it was evident that the colonies were not to be conquered and many were the settlers who came to town – The Newells, Collins, Humphreys, Bakers, Pikes, Rice, Cases, Andrussea, Moseses, Etc., among them being Lieut. Gideon Mills from Simsbury, whose oldest daughter, Ruth, was the mother of John Brown of Harper’s Ferry fame. A large portion of the address was devoted to a list of the early residents of the town, among whom were the Cases; so numerous were they that in the eastern part of the town it was safe for a traveler to salute every alternare man with that name. It is impossible to give any abstract of the carefully prepared record of the names and subswquent careers of the early settlers as ready by Mr. Lee; we can give but one.

Story of the Lighthouse: The Elwells came from Southington. James Chaugham was a Narragansett Indian, a native of Block Island. While yet a young man he adopted the manners and customs of the whites, and came to Wethersfield, where he married a white women (Molly Barker (? should be Barber misspell?) by name) who had been disappointed by parented authority interfering to prevent a union with the man of her choice. She gave out that she would marry the first man that offered, white or black. From the statement made to me by the widow of Joseph Elwell, senior, wo was a grand-daughter of Chaugham, a few months before her death, I suppose they were married about 1740. As Elwell’s widow was born about 1783, and she was a daughter of Chaugham’s third child, it seems that this estimate cannot be far of the way. After they were married they left Wethersfield, came over to Farmington, followed up the Tunxis river, until they found a resting place on the flat about a mile south of the Riverton on the east, or rather north-east side of the river, and there made a clearing, and reared quite a family, to wit: Samuel, who married Miss Green of Sharon; Mercy, who married Isaac L Jacklin of Barkhamsted; Polly who married William Wilson, also of Barkhamsted; Mary who married a Lawerence: Hannah, who married Rueben Barber, Solomon who married Miss Hayes: Sally, who died aged 80 unmarried, Chaugham died about 1800 and wife in 1820, the latter being understood to be 105 years old. Chaugham’s children moved from this vicinity at an early age. He was a good citizen, and lived an honest life. The talk about his being an Indian chief in paint, with plumes, tomahawks and scalping knives, is all bosh. (Is it thou?) A poor road, as were most them then led past.

Chaugham’s dwellin: the river was  forded below his house, at the south end of the plot and again at the north end. When the Farmington river turnpike was laid out, between 1790 and 1800, it went past his log house, New Hartford was the end of the route, and the stopping place for the night – Coming for the north, the stages would pass by his door along in the evening especially in the fall of the year. The drivers would recognize it at once, and so knowing how much further they had to go fell into a habit of the the terms “We are within four miles of port; there is the lighthouse” This phrase was taken up by the traveling public as well as the townspeople and carried far and wide. A description of the construction of the old roads and bridges, the well known localities with quaint names and the mills, the churches and ministers of the town followed the tale of the lighthouse. But an lawyer ever settled in the town and he Hiram Goodwin, located near the corner of the four towns, knowing well the peaceful character of the people. Subscquently he became a judge and one year later presided ove the State Senate. He is still living. The old-timed “trainings” are described. The only survivors of the artillery company in the old Twenty-first regiment which flourished alone from 1830 to 1845 made up from the town of Barkhamsted, Winchester, Colebrook and New Hartford are Amos Beecher now of Winsted, A. B. Perkins now of Meriden, Joseph Goodwin of New Hartford, and Grandison Wilder of Plainville, O. Mr. Lee then spoke of the excellent water power afforded by the four streams of Barkhamsted and which should be utilized for manufacturing purposes. The village of Collinsville might just as well have been located in Barkhamsted and would have had owners of land had the foresight to treat with liberality the offers of capitalist. It would pay the town to offer sites for mills and workshops free of cost. The streams are of pure water and especially adapted for the making of paper. A list of Barkhamsted boys who have gone forth into the world and made their mark is given, most of them being yet alive, They were as follows: Lawyers, L.M. Slade of Bridgeport, Judge M.E. Merrill of Hartford, Congressman James Phelps of Essex, Elisha Johnson of Hartford, Walter S. Carter of New York, Lester Newell of New York, Badley Lee of St. Louis, Dwight Cleaveland of Oskdosh Wis., W.A. Ransom of Litchfield, T. C. Ransom of Iowa and Daniel Alford of Kansas, Ministers, Rev. Elijah Jones of Southington, Rev. Anson Tuttle, Rev. Leonard Richardson of Port Jefferson, L.I. George A. Parkington of New Haven. Physicians, Russell Tiffany, long of Collinsville, now of Hartford, Jerry Burwell of Hartford, Charles Gorham, ex- mayor of Pitston, Pa., Joseph B. Whitney of Jonesville, Wis., James Comings of Bridgeport, Albert Merrill of Wellington. O. mention is also made of Dr. Geo W. Kibee, who went to New Orleans last year to care for the yellow fever patients and died of the disease; also of the following who lost their lives during the late war – Lieut Henry B Lee and Capt. Edwin R. Lee, brothers of the speaker; George W. Burrell, Alfred C. Alford, Frankin I Atwater, Orvill Wilcox and others. End

THE OLD “LIGHTHOUSE”  And the Strange Tribe of Barkhamsted
Special to The Courant -The Hartford Courant
ProQuest Historical Newspapers Hartford Courant (1764 – 1922)
Dated: Jan 25, 1900
ONLY TWO MOURNFUL SURVIVORS OF IT – Was it Founded by a Runaway Wethersfield Girl and a Diappointed Narraganess Indian – Theories as to an interesting Bit of Early Connecticut History –  (Special to The Courant) Winsted, Jan. 24: A generation or two ago, the “Barkhamsted Lighthouse” had a widespread notoriety. It was a queer name to be clinging to a wild spot among the rocky hills of Northwestern Connecticut, sixty miles from the sea. Inquiries into it’s history when they were made by the curious came too late: the true story of one of the last Indian resorts in the state will prehaps never be unearthed. Enough was learned, however, to invest the place and people with a kind of romantic interest and many versions of the origin of the founder of the colony and its name gew up. The following is at present the most generally accpeted account. Chaugham was a Narragansett Indian born on Block Island. A young white women of Wethersfield had been forbidden by her father to marry the man of her choice. Reckless in her disappointment she declared, in spite, that she would wed the first man, white or black, who offered himself. Chaugham heard of it, proposed and Molly Barber kept her word. The strangely mated couple were privately married and then fled. They went over Talcott Mountain to Farmington and then up the river into the depths of the Green-woods as the great forest of what is now Litchfield Country were then called. The settled at Ragged Mountain in Barkhamsted on the upper waters of the Tunxis. Here Chaugham built a wigwam or hut in which they lived. Years afterwards the Hartford and Albany turnpike was constructed along the river. The stage drivers on the lonely Road (?) passing the place at night and always seeing gleams from the cabin fire shining through the cracks the only light in miles. began to call it the “Lighthouse” – and so it was named Chaugham and his wife raised a family of eight Children whose descendants became the lighthouse tribe. The pretty but willful Molly lived to be 105 years old dying in 1820 and came to be known as old Granny Chaugham.

The Romance of It: This is substantially the story as given by William Wallace Lee of Meriden historian of Barkhamsted his native town and is one which he considers plausible and prosale. In the latter view, however, it is possible that the able writer falls to catch the spirit of the Lighthouse legend. Even if there were nothing romantic in the rash vow the secret marriage and the hurried flight of the civilized girl, the abandonment of his ancestral home by the Narragansett – descendant of the most powerful tribe of Indians in New England – would be enough to give it color. And then later in his book, the historian speaks of Chaugham´s grave as “the resting place, so far as we know, the last of the Narragansett´s” If Chaugham had indeed been the last of the race New England would have no spot no more fraught with historic suggestions that the hillside where he sleeps. But it is possible that Chaugham may not have been Narragansett at all. Historians of neighboring towns do not sustain this theory of his coming. They hold rather that he was “the head man of the last remnants of a tribe of Indians who lived along the Farmington or Tunxis River” and that the council fires of the tribe kept up for a long time by his descendants were the mythical lighthouse.

Lighthouse a Signal? : Yet the theory is not wholly acceptable to impartial judgment. There is no evidence that the relations between Chaugham whoever he was and the first white settler of Barkhamsted were ever unfriendly. Nevertheless at the very time when he was living in peace with others in the neighboring town of New Hartford a few miles down the river the handful of sectors had a house which was further” forted in” which they were often obliged to resort for safety from the attack of the hostile Indians. Little as is known therefore of the natives which were indigenous to this section (Connecticut histories do not class them with the strong Tunxis Indian at the mouth of the river with whom William Holmes opened trade in 1632  for that purpose sailing bravely by the Dutch Fort at Hartford though ordered to turn back or be fired upon. there is still ground for belief that Chaugham was not one of them. but was an alien and friendly to his white neighbors. The lighthouse in fact may have been his signal fire to the paleface when danger from the other Indians threatened. Some such belief seems to have been current years ago. Henry L. R. Jones, a former resident of Barkhamsted, writing from Kansas to the Centennial committee of in 1879 (?) says: “I have often met those who had heard of the old beacon light that stood stark and `one upon that old hillside as if to warn the screeching gulls of danger.” But who if neither Narragansett nor native, was Chaugham? To what ancestry did the blood of the half-breeds’ whom he left behind him, revert? They flourished at the lighthouse, wild and rand, a rough and roistering colony, for generations. Their doings were many and strange, but actual crime like that of the murdered Mossock; the exploits of whose ugly band of half-breeds’ gave the name of Satan´s Kingdom to their resorts further down the river below New Hartford, was never laid at their door. Were they from a less savage strain? Eventually the Lighthouse people began to degenerate through intermarriage, They became degraded and in their latter days were “a band of bleached-out basket-making and root gathering vagabonds.” Their cabins became fewer and more miserable as the race died out. Finally the remaining members were dispersed and their habitations utterly disappeared.

The Sole Survivors: There are now living, however, near the village of Riverton, a mile from the Lighthouse site, old Sol Webster and his wife, the only survivors of the tribe in that section. Their poverty is extreme. The man says he is about 80 years of age; he may be much older. The women is several years younger. Both are lineal descendants of Chaugham´s daughters but do not seem able to untangle their genealogies. However, the old man has recollections of many traditions of the tribe. He replies promptly when asked about his ancestor, that his grandfather told him that “Chaugham was an Indian who came from England with Columbus when he discovered America.” He is so persistent upon this point that a theory has been formed that the statement may have some basis of fact and that the mysterious Chaugham was of Spanish-Indian extraction.
Over 200 Buried: Old Sol, as he is called speaks with sadness of his people and of the time when he says thirty-two families lived in the the Lighthouse settlement. He tells with homely pathos that in the woods near the place there is an old Indian graveyard where over 200 of his tribe are buried. The visitor to Ragged Mountain finds it as he says. It is a spot of natural beauty. The mountain is pushed back a little giving room for the Lighthouse flats beside the river. In the brushwood on either side of the road an occasional lilac bush betrays the site of a former hut. To the east on a sandy wooded knoll may be discovered but only by search, vestiges of the ancient cemetery. Few of the graves are marked and these merely by a small stone set on end. Not one has an inscription. Little hollows show that some of the graves have been raided. All trace of the burying ground must be lost in the course of a few more years, but as it is now no place can be more typical of the extinction of the red men’s race than is this somber graveyard of Changham and his tribe. (Note from Coni:) Solomon died just a few days after this was printed. Also wanted to note all the Chaugham’s was typed Changham I’m not sure if a copy error – but corrected it with a U where the N was believe it was written Changham thou as per the next Newspaper article spelling being the same) End

An Indian Romance – Published by West Bay City Times-Press
(Office: 512 Midland St West Bay City, Mich.)
Dated: March 30, 1900 Friday Evening
An Indian Romance – Origin of the “Lighthouse Tribe” of Connecticut – unknown author
Disappointment in love of a pretty Wethersfield girl and the pique of a Narragansett Indian from Long Island were procuctive of a piece of Connecticut history which is sometimes put down to myth. The last man to prove that it was not a myth died a few days ago. He was Sol Webster, male descendant of the Wethersfield girl, last of of some three hundred others who lived strange lives in the woods and hills around Barkhamsted.
The pretty white maiden, in the old Colonial days, had fallen in love with a young man in Wethersfield, Conn., but her father forbade her marrying him. Thereupon she took a vow that she would wed the first man who offered himself. About that time the Narragansett Indian, a brave named Chaugham, had left his tribe because of some injury to his reputation, and had come to live in Northern Connecticut. When he heard of the Wethersfield maiden, he hurried to her and offer his hand, which, according to her vow she accepted. Together they went to what is now Burkhamsted, and became the progenitors of a people who during this century have been known as the “Lighthouse Tribe” It was in trying to learn how any people so far from the coast could get such a name that the romance was unearthed. The couple established their home on what is called Ragged Mountain, on the upper waters of the Tunxis, and years afterward the lights from their hut served as a landmark for the stage coaches which passed that way. Hence, it is said, the name “Lighthouse Tribe” Changham and his wife brought up eight children. The pretty but willful Molly lived to be 105 years old, dying in the 1820, at which time she was known as Granny Chaugham. The halfbreeds flourished at the Lighthouse, a rough and roystering colony, for generations Their doings were many and strange, but actual crimes, such as that of the murdered Mossock, the exploits of whose halfbreed band gave the name Satan’s Kingdom to their resort, below New Hartford, were never lais at their door. Eventually the began to degenerate through marrying among themselves and from other causes, and in their latter days were ” a band of bleached out, basket making, root gathering vagabonds.” Their cabins became fewer and more miserable, and at last the remanant of the tribe dispersed. One hut alone remained near the villiage of Riverton, a mile from the original Lighthouse, it was occupied by Old Sol Webster and his wife, who were, as far as known, the sole survivors of the family. Their poverty was extreme. The man said he was about eighty years old, but he looked much older. The women is several years younger. Both were lineal descendants of Changham’s daughters, but never were able to untangle their genealogies. The old settlement is situated in a wild spot of great natural beauty.

An Indian Romance – By Bilox Herald
Dated: April 15, 1900
Interesting Account of the Origin of the “Lighthouse Tribe” of Connecticut – Disappointment in love of a pretty Wethersfield girl and the pique of a Narragansett Indian from Long Island were productive of a piece of Connecticut history which is sometimes put down as myth. The last man to prove that it was not myth died a few days ago. He was Sol Webster, male descendant of the Wethersfield girl, last of some 300 others who lived strange lives in the woods and hills around Barkhamsted. The pretty white maiden, in the old Colonial days, had fallen in love with a young man in Wethersfield, Conn., but her father forbade her marring him. Thereupon she took a vow that she would wed the first man who offered himself. About that time the Narragansett Indian, a brave named Changham (Chagum), had left his tribe because of some injury to his reputation, and had come to live in northern Connecticut. When he heard of the Wethersfield maiden, he hurried to her and offered his hand, which, according to her vow, she accepted. Together they went to what is now Barkhamsted, and became the progenitors of a people who during this century have been known as the “Lighthouse tribe” It was in trying to learn how any people so far from the coast could get such a name that the romance was unearthed. The couple established their home on what is called Ragged mountain on the upper waters of the Tunxis, and years afterward the lights from their hut served as a landmark fro the stage coaches which passed that way. Hence, it is said the name “Lighthouse tribe.” Changham (Chagum) and his wife brought up eight children. The pretty but willful Molly lived to be 105 years old. Dying in 1820, at which time she was known as Granny Changham (Chagum). The half breeds flourished at the Lighthouse, a rough and roystering colony for generations. Their doings were many and strange, but actual crimes, such as that of the murdered Mossock, the exploits of whose half-breed band gave the name of Satan’s Kingdom to their resort, below New Hartford, were never laid at their door. Eventually they began to generate through marrying among themselves and from other causes, and in their latter days were ” a band of bleached out, basket making, root gathering vagabonds.” Their cabins became fewer and more miserable, and at last the remnant of the tribe dispersed. One hut alone remained near the village of Riverton, a mile fro the original lighthouse. It was occupied by old Sol Webster and his wife, who were , as far as known, the sole survivors of the family. Their poverty was extreme. The man said he was about  80 years old, but he looked much older. The women is several years younger. Both were lineal descendants of Changham’s (Chagum) daughters, but  never were able to untangle their genealogies. The old Settlement is situated in a wild spot of great natural beauty with here and there a lilac bush marking the site of some former cabin. – N. Y. Herald –  End

Farmington Valley Herald
Dated: April 17, 1924 – Handwritten & donated by Doug Roberts
Note from Coni: I need this Newspaper Article
Barkhamsted “Lighthouse” Sold: The place known as the Barkhamsted Lighthouse situated about one and a half miles north of the village of Pleasant Valley on the east side of the Farmington River has been sold to the state and has become a part of the New Peoples Forest in the town of Barkhamsted. At the present time there are no buildings at the old “Lighthouse” nothing remains but the cellar holes of the log huts. Approximately 30 in number and old stone walk with a bed of May-Apple or Mandrakes growning in front of it and even these are hard to find unless one is familiar with the place. About thirty rods south of the Chaugham house site is the old Indian Burying ground – There are about 50 graves which are supposed to be the graves of Chaughams descendants. Rough unknown stones mark the graves. Not far from 1740 James Chaugham a Narragansett Indian who had adopted the manners and customs of the white people was living in Wethersfield Connecticut and while living there he heard that a young lady named Molly Barber who had been forbidden by her parents to marry the man of her choice had made the remark that she would marry the first man that asked her white or black. Chaugham on hearing this lost no time in presenting himself and they were privately married. Leaving Wethersfield they crossed Talcott Mountain to Farmington and followed the Farmington River upto the Lighthouse Flat. Here Chaugham made a clearing built himself a log hut, where he lived to a good old age respected by the people of the town. He died about 1800. His wife died in 1820 said to be 105 years old. They had eight children, Samuel, Mercy, Polly, Mary, Hannah, Soloman, Sally and Elizabeth. This settlement recieved it’s name the “Lighthouse” from the stage drivers who on leaving the place after dark would recognize Chaughams place by the light that shown through the crevices of the log hut and fell into the habit of saying “Wekk we are only 5 miles from port, there is the Lighthouse.” The road by Chaughams was part of the old Albany turnpike, from Hartford to Albany. Starting south of New Hartford at the Widow Pikes Place now owned by T. Scott Bidwell about a half mile east of Satan’s Kingdom it ran up the east side of the river past the old Richard’s place now owned by Stavnitzley(?) Bro. On past the Dregg(?) place now owned by Hartford Water Co.,  Once(?) the greese (?) in Pleasant Valley down the hill of the Abner Taylor residence owned now by George Butley of Chicago, to the river bank north of the Taylor place through the woods north of the Britstol place (nothing remaining now but the cellar holes) past Chaughams dwelling north into Massachesuetts and on to Albany. The old “Lighthouse” site is one of the most beautiful spots in Connecticut and would be a fine place for camping parties. The State has secured the use of a beautiful grone (?) north of the Lighthouse on the banks of the river, which covers a number of acres and intends to make it into a public picnic ground.  End

The Peoples Forest Pleasant Valley Connecticut  had a Pageant
A Forest of Refuge by Elliott Pettibone Bronson
Dated: Oct 4, 1924
Molly Barber, a rebellious maiden and the first settler in Barkhamsted was played by Mrs. Wm. H. Blodgett, Winsted. – Chaugham, the last of the Narragansett Indians was played  by Grove Johnson, Torrington. – Molly Barber and the Barkhamsted Lighthouse – As men in the trenches sometimes creep across no man’s land and fraternize with their enemies during lulls of battle, so that white race and red in the backwoods settlement, forgetting the great inter-racial struggles, often mixed their blood in inter-racial marriages. There were renegade whites, and tame Indians all along the border. There is more Indiana blood in our people than most of us imagine. The Molly Barber story is far less grim than many of its kind. The rebel daughter of a too stern father – with a trace of class consciousness that is scarcely to his credit, runs away about 1760 with Chaugham, an Indian brave, said to have been the last of the famous Narragansett Tribe. and becomes the first white settler in the town of Barkhampsted. Forty years pass, and the next scene is in front of thier cabin on the banks of the Farmington, which forms the setting for a typical example of early Americian humor – namely gross exaggeration. The Barkhampsted lighthouse of the Farmington River – navigable for canoes only – was doubtless a choice bit for our ancestors. End

Historian Looks at the Life And Times of James Chagaum
The Hartford Courant –  By Kevin Canfield
Dated: Thursday Oct. 16, 1997
New Hartford – Was James Chagaum, founder of the storied Lighthouse settlement in Barkhamsted, a Narragansett Indian or was he, as some early legends suggest, of Spanish descent? Did the land Chagaum purchased in the Nepaug section of town become something of a hub of commerce in the late 18th century or was it simply a haven for society’s undesireable? Did Chagaum and others close to him attend services at the North Congregretational Church or did they reject organized religion? Today at 7 p.m. in the New Hartford Memorial Library, local historian Walt Landgraf will attemp to answer these and other questions about Chagaum, whose Lighthouse community has been part of this county lore for close to two centuries. [AREAWIDE] According to legend and previous study, Chagaum, born on Block Island around 1715 was thought to have settled in Barkhamsted as early as the 1740’s. Recent research by Landgraf, David Krimmel, a local historian from New Hartford, and Robert Grady, a histroical archaeologistat the university of Connecticut, indicates that Chagaum and others had established a thriving community in New Harfrod years before they relocated to Barkhamsted. In 1779 and 1782, Chagum bought abutting plots of land in Barkhamsted. Coupled with the land purchased by Chagaum’s son, Samuel, the family owned about160 acres there. But earlier that decade, Landgraf said, Chagaum made a series of land purchase in New Hartford. By 1776, he owned about 160 acres in Nepaug section of town. Though historians know more about Chagaum than they did when Central Connecticut State University Professor Kenneth L. Feder’s book “Village of Outcast” was published just three years ago, questions about Chagaum remain. * Where did Chagaum come up with the resources to by land? Landgraf believes that Chagaum probably had ties to the Tunxis reservation in Farmington. The reservation land was sold to private citzens in 1770. Descendant of those whl lived on the reservation recieved a portion of the sales’s proceeds. Chagaum, who later in 1770 bought about 100 acres in the New Hartford, was likely among those who benefitted, Landgraf said. Through the work of Grady, Krimmel and Landgraf, the foundation of Chagum’s house in what is now Nepaug State Forest, may have been found. Land records show that Chagaum’s land abutted what was known as the 8th highway, a property boundry line. Krimmel, who is reconstructing the proprietor’s maps of early New Hartford , located the 8yh highway. Landgraf then found the foundation. * What did Chagaum do with the property? Chagaum’s land, in the Satan’s Kingdom area of New Hartford, was likely used to make Charcoal, Landgraf said. It may have attracted an eclectic mix of others – former slaves, whites and Native Americans – looking for work. Though the area probably became the “business nucleus of Satan’s Kingdom” Landgraf said the community was looked down upon at the time. They were “people who were making a living at a job that some parts of society did not see as a good profession.” After Chagaum purchased land in Barkhamsted in the late 1770’s and early 1780’s, the communty settled on Ragged Mountain on the West Branch of the Farmington River. There they formed the Lighthouse community, about midway between Riverton and Pleasant Valley in what is now People’s StateForest. The settlement’s makeup was similar to that of the Satan’s Kngdom group. At about this time, the woodcutting and charcoal-making business was probably relocated to Barkhamsted, Landgraf said. According to legend, the community, off the Farmington River Turnpike, was dubbed the Lighthouse by passing coach drivers to whom light shining from the settlement’s cabins served as a landmark of sorts. Chagaum died around 1790. His family lived at the Lighthouse site for about 70 years. * Was Chagaum Indian? Some early legends said he was Spanish. Landgraf said Chagaum was probably mistakenly thought to be of Spanish descend because of his dark skin. Strong evidence that Chagaum was Indian comes by way of the diary of Samson Occom. Occom, a Mohican Indian who donated the money that led to the founding of Darthmouth College, travelled extenssively. He tried to preserve Indian cultrure and wed it with parts of British life. In his dairy, Occcom writes that he stayed with the family of James Chagaum, a Narragansett Indian, in 1774 and in 1785. * What was the relationship between the North Congregational Church and the Indians of the Satan’s Kingdom area? Landgraf said evidence exists, thanks again to Samson Occom, that the Indians of Chagaum’s community had ties to the church; Occom noted in his diary that certain pews in the church were reserved for Indians. Landgraf’s program will show slides, copies of deeds and pictures of the Neqaug foundation. The program is free and while no registration is required, it is recommended for older children and adults. End

Lifestyle News – By Samantha Bouffard – Staff Writer
Yawannaknow Connecticut Magazine
Dated: May, 5th, 2000
A lighthouse with an ‘enlightened’ history – When Molly Barber defied her father and married James Chaugham, a native American from the Narragansett tribe, she did more than start a new life with a husband: she began a sort of movement for other outcasts in Connecticut. Around 1740, she and her group of misfits, living an “out of the ordinary life” according to local townspeople in neighboring towns, started a peaceful way of life the way they saw fit at the Barkhamsted Lighthouse. It was a kind of hippie-utopian commune, a century ahead of its time. “The lighthouse people gathered wild plants, hunted, and fished for much of their food,” said Walter Landgraf, a naturalist for the Peoples and American Legion Forests, which now cover parts of the historical village. “They made baskets for sale and only worked when they needed money. They lived a very simple life.” Although the name stirs of visions of a seaside beacon, this was not the case at all.  According to Landgraf, it was the light from the Barkhamsted Lighthouse residents’ cabins that stood as a landmark for stagecoach drivers. Professor Kenneth Feder teaches anthropology at Central Connecticut State University and wrote a book about these forest dwellers, Village Of Outcasts. Feder quoted an old story about this legendary lighthouse: As the stage drivers were coming from the north, especially in the short days, they would readily  recognize Chaugham’s place by the light that shown through the crevices in his log-house, and it was the only place that could be so recognized in the thick woods that lined the road, and knowing then the distance to the end of the route, fell into the habit of saying, ‘Well, we are only five miles from port. There is the Lighthouse. (Feder, page 45) The time of the Barkhamsted Lighthouse village was over 100 years ago and although there is hardly a trace of residents’ existence except for some foundations, the legend of this group still lives. As much as I don’t care for a long, hot hike in the mountains, the tale of these brave townspeople, determined to live life as they saw fit, drew me to the area. So I headed into this territory with backpack in tow to see what else these woods had to offer. If you have ever taken a tubing ride down the Farmington River, you have gotten a short view of the area, but to really appreciate it, you have to be in the thick of it. Nestled in the middle of the forest are two impressive landmarks. First, the Stone Museum greets eager hikers and nature lovers. A sort of living museum, this structure houses displays and information about the forest. This building was built in 1934 by the Civilian Conservation Corps as a museum and still serves this purpose today. Landgraf said that about 4,500 visitors visit the Stone Museum each year. They come to hike, relax and get a true taste for the forest. Periodically he holds programs on the ecology and history of the area. “These programs help bring people in,” said Landgraf. A popular tale is the story of the Barkhamsted Lighthouse is a popular tale as well as the story of unknown Native American tribe that inhabited the area centuries ago. While the artifacts were excavated years ago by a group from Yale, the cliffs, which over-hangs offered cave-like shelter to its residents still remind visitors of the area’s history. Still intrigued by what this remote area of the state has to offer? Landgraf hosts a series of hikes through the many trails of the forest. Starting with a hike thought the Kitchell Wildness of Algonquin State Forest, he regularly leads eager hikers through historical and ecological hikes, lecturing on what this hidden treasure has to offer. Treks through old Indian caves as well as adventures through thick vegetation will have hikers and nature lovers begging for more. A solitary hike is also a good way to discover the area for yourself as I have done on various occasions. From lounging by the water’s edge trying to hook a few fish to leisurely strolling down one of the many hikes, it’s bound to be a pleasant experience. There are trail maps at the Stone Museum, which points out the several areas of interest so you can explore until you are drop. Caution, some of the trails are up hill and despite the warning that the bug population is down due to the heat waves and drought, these little pest seemed to have settled in forest and have called it home. Bug spray, water, a daypack and your enthusiasm are all you need to spend a great day at Peoples and the American Legion Forest. Happy hiking!

Native Americans of New Hartford – New Hartford Historical Society
Dated: January 2001 Newsletter – 7 pgs
Note from Coni: I have this newsletter – Need to Transcribe

The Newsletter of the Humanist Association of Connecticut
Dated: March 2007
Life at the Lighthouse: Join us at 700 Hartford Turnpike in Hamden on Monday, March 19, when we welcome back the equally entertaining and informative archaeologist, Kenneth L. Feder, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology at Central Connecticut State University. Dr. Feder calls this presentation, “Halfway between a wood-pile and a log fence: Life at the Lighthouse, Barkhamsted, Connecticut.´´ According to the legend of the Barkhamsted “Lighthouse,´´ the community´s first inhabitants were a wealthy white woman and an Indian man who had married against her father´s wishes and then fled. According to a newspaper article which appeared late in 1854, the destitute village was inhabited by a group of Indians, the descendants of African slaves, and poor whites. Intensively between 1986 and 1993, and intermittently every since, Ken has directed a research project focusing on the Lighthouse community, combining documentary and archaeological analysis. The results indicate how the Lighthouse evolved from a community of isolated outcasts to one connected to a world economic system and how, ultimately, it became the stuff of legend. Bring a friend to 700 Hartford Turnpike at 7:30 p.m. on Monday, March 19, for coffee and conversation to be followed by Ken´s fascinating presentation!

Barkhamsted Lighthouse – Barkhamsted, CT – Case #107
Quote from “The Story of Connecticut” by Lewis Sprague Mills, 1932
Dated: August 2, 2007
“And there’s the Lighthouse,” rang the driver’s shout, As down the valley toiled the Hartford stage Past where the lights were feebly shining out From cabins high on Ragged Mountain side. About the year 1740 Molly Barber of Wethersfield was prevented by her parents from marrying the man of her choice. She then declared she would marry the first man who offered himself. This man was James Chaugham, a Narragansett Indian, born on Block Island. Molly came with her husband to Barkhamsted, where they reared a family of eight children. A daughter, Mercy Chaugham, married Isaac Jacklyn, a servant of Secretary of State Wyllys of Hartford. Others who married into the Chaugham family were Wilson, Elwell, Webster, and Green, for the children of Molly and James Chaugham were respected among the white settlers as well as among the Indians. These descendants with their husbands and wives became knows as the “Lighthouse Tribe” from the fact that the Hartford and Albany stage drivers, after leaving Riverton and coming in sight of the lights which shone through the cracks and windows of their cabins, would remark, “There’s the Lighthouse, and we’re only five miles from port.” New Hartford was their destination for the night. The cellar holes and the graves of about fifty of these Indians may still be seen on the lonely western slope of Ragged Mountain in People’s Forest above Pleasant Valley in Barkhamsted.

This (Really) Little Light Of Mine Barkhamsted Lighthouse, Barkhamsted
http://seasonsmagazines.com/archives/2008/Spring/riversjourney.shtml
Dated: September 9, 2007
The heading for this whole section of CTMQ is “Curiosities.´´ And the Barkhamsted Lighthouse is indeed a curiosity. What is it? Why was there a lighthouse in the middle of the forest, 100 miles from the closest open water? And, once there, um… where is this lighthouse anyway? After finishing my hikes across the Farmington River´s west branch, I drove down and around to the People´s Forest side up East River Road to find the mysterious lighthouse. I´d read a good deal on this thing, and it was intriguing to say the least. It must be noted that the drive up along the river is beautiful. Peoples Forest contains several trails as well as the creatively named Stone Museum – so I´d be back here.  I found the turnout to park and the trailhead for the Jesse Gerard Trail. At this point I´m waffling… Do you want to read about the history or the current reality first? The former is very interesting, the latter is not. At all. I guess I’lll go with the current reality. There is a large boulder alongside the road with a bronze plaque embedded into it, noting the importance of the area. I chugged up the Gerard Trail, immediately passing the overgrown foundation of the former Chaugham homestead. The what? Keep reading…I said, “the overgrown foundation of the former Chaugham homestead!´´ Only a minute or two up the hill the trail leveled out and turned right. Off to the right were a few small rocks pointing up out of the ground. This is the Barkhamsted Lighthouse Cemetary and, quite frankly, would be impossible to find if not for the guidebook telling me to find it and the small US flags scattered about. I mulled around the area (respectfully, of course) and then climbed the trail to the top of the hill. I swung left onto the Robert Ross Trail, then left back down the hill via the Falls Cut-off Trail. This extra walking had a purpose… which would bear itself out a month later when I returned to hike Peoples Forest. So what´s the big deal? And what does that plaque below say on the boulder? Okay, that one´s easy… it says, “THIS PORTION OF THE PEOPLE´S FOREST WAS GIVEN BY THE CONNECTICUT DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1929 NEAR THIS SPOT WAS THE SITE OF AN INDIAN VILLAGE.´´ Yeah, so? Does this “Indian Village´´ have anything to do with a lighthouse in the woods? Yup… Sometime around 1740, give or take a few years, there lived in the town of Wethersfield a full-blooded Narragansett Indian who went by the unlikely name of James Chaugham (probably pro- nounced “Shawm´´ or “Shawn´´). Born on far-away Block Island, the young man had somehow found his way to Connecti- cut´s second oldest community, adopted the ways of his white neighbors and, through hard work and a pleasing personality, established himself quite well in their regard. If he fancied the English-sounding name “Chaugham,´´ they said, why not let him use it? During this same period, there was growing up in a proper Wethersfield family a young woman named Molly Barber. Like some teenagers from time immemorial, Molly provided her family with almost more headstrong personality than they could handle, particularly when it came to men in her life. One day she announced that she was planning to marry a young man whom she knew her father was not too fond of. As she expected, Mr. Barber denied his daughter permission to marry the man of her choice, whereupon Molly threw an old-fashioned temper tantrum. Among other things, she vowed that if she could not wed her current boyfriend, she would henceforth marry the next fellow who asked for her hand, no matter what kind of person he was or – and she knew this would get to her father – what his racial origins might be. Well, since Molly promptly began broadcasting her availability around town, it didn´t take long for the word to reach the ears of young James Chaugham. One thing led to another, as they say, and before Mr. Barber could do anything about it, Molly and James were united, privately and secretly, in holy matrimony. Then, maybe to avoid her father´s wrath or ostracism by a disapproving community, or perhaps just to find privacy for their new life together, the newlyweds left Wethersfield and headed north into the howling Connecticut wilderness, up around the Massachusetts border. Some say that they first moved in with some Indians who lived in a little cabin on top of one of the hills above what is now the Barkhamsted Reservoir. But it is more likely that they picked out a homesite on the side of Ragged Mountain, overlooking the West Branch of the Farmington River, about two miles south of Riverton, in an area which today is part of the Peoples State Forest. In this remote country, with not another permanent neighbor within miles, the Chaughams cleared a plot of land and built themselves a log cabin. It was said to be the first home in the town of Barkhamsted. In this place, the Wethersfield emigrants raised eight children, six of whom grew up, married and continued to live nearby their parents´ house, in what became a veritable village of Chaughams. From the beginning, they say, the original log dwelling served as a welcome landmark for the occasional travelers passing along the desolate north-south trail which followed the West Branch of the Farmington. Not only did the house have a number of windows, but it was also not very tightly chinked; so the cooking and heating fires burning day and night, winter and summer, glowed so brightly through the various openings that passers-by began to refer to the lonely cabin as the “Barkhamsted Lighthouse.´´ In later years, when the Hartford-Albany turnpike was built along the Farmington River, it passed directly below the Chaugham cabin. With the increased interstate traffic, the fame of the Lighthouse spread, because drivers on the stages making their way south over the toll road would always watch anxiously for the light streaming through the walls of the Chaugham cabin, and when they finally saw it, they would shout to the passengers, “There´s Barkhamsted Lighthouse; only five miles more to New Hartford the end of the route.´´ Apparently Molly and James got on well with folks in their region, even though their nearest neighbors were probably down in New Hartford. In fact, they say that James Chaugham would always light a signal fire on the top of Ragged Mountain, up behind his cabin, whenever he learned that the New Hartford settlement was under threat of Indian attack. Then the New Hartford residents would gather in the fortified house they had built to protect themselves from the occasional sorties by hostile Indians out of Satan´s Kingdom, and wait for the Indians to appear or the danger to pass. The people of New Hartford had great affection for the keepers of the Barkhamsted Lighthouse.  From Legendary Connecticut Some of you are saying to yourselves, “Satan´s Kingdom?! Awesome!´´ Yes, there is a part of New Hartford with that name – and I can guarantee a CTMQ visit or two in the future. I promise. Although taken from “Legendary Connecticut,´´ the above story is true. It is told in several books and at the nearby Stone and Barhamstead Historical Museums. (I left out the “After they died there were ghosts and curses´´ junk.) At any rate, I found that story to be interesting on several levels and am glad I visited.  End

Another Article more detailed – Story by Steve Silk
Dated: Spring 2008
A River´s Journey – It would be nice to say the Farmington River is unique in all the world, it just wouldn’t be true. But the river is unusual. Very unusual.  It may be the only one in the northern hemisphere to flow every which way. The Farmington tumbles south, wanders west, churns east, and glides north.  But don’t jump to conclusions. That apparent aimlessness doesn’t suggest the river has lost its way, no. The Farmington is on course, flowing straight through the pages of a storybook. It helps to know the language if you want to read its many tales. Just as the river flows up, down and sideways on the map, it speaks in many dialects. But to the fishermen, archaeologists, paddlers, scientists and historians who understand its babbling speech, the Farmington tells plenty of stories. After all, a lot has happened here. Along the river’s banks, dinosaurs once munched lush vegetation, and post Ice-Age settlers hunted caribou at a time millennia ago – when the Farmington Valley looked like arctic tundra. More recently, its water powered the Collinsville factory that made the lethal-looking pikes which abolitionist John Brown planned to issue to a slave army he hoped would rise when he and his men took over an arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia. And that’s just the start. Rising at the eastern edge of the Berkshires in Becket, Massachusetts, the Farmington meanders 81 leisurely miles to debouch in the Connecticut River in Windsor. Along the way it crashes through several wild-looking gorges, ambles lazily past fertile farmlands, and, here and there, gets bombarded by errant golf balls. With condos and shopping centers along its banks, the Farmington is a suburban stream, but one with attitude, where bald eagles sometimes soar. One of its finest stretches, the 14-mile run from Hartland to the New Hartford/Canton town line, has been designated a part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; a status enjoyed by only five other waterways in New England. The entire downstream stretch from there is currently under a National Park Service study; it too may be on the path to Wild and Scenic status by next year. The river’s scenic status – and its storytelling capability – is certainly not news to fly fisherman Don Butler, a Terryville resident who’s been fishing the Farmington – and reading its waters – since, well, let’s just say for a long time. You could find him out casting a line almost any day of the year – Butler’s known for catching at least one trout a month on a dry fly for 83 months in a row, a lucky streak just shy of eight years. Butler can often be found near New Hartford at the Bone Yard, where a riffle of whitewater exhausts itself in a broad, dark pool. There, he waves his fly rod like a magic wand, conjuring fish to rise to his homemade fly. Fishing is so good at the Bone Yard that Butler has hauled in as many as 30 trout in a couple hours. One reason there’s so much action, he says, is the state DEP’s distinctive method for stocking the river. “They call it the survival program,” Butler says. “They’re taking healthy happy fish out of the element they love, and then stocking their offspring right back in the same area.” It all adds up to lots of fish, and lots of fishermen. The Farmington River Watersshed Association estimates nearly 100,000 angler visits a year to the Wild and Scenic stretch alone. Butler, who works as a guide for Upcountry Sport Fishing in New Hartford, says, “I’ve guided people from Japan, Australia, Germany and that other foreign country, California.” New Yorkers, too, are discovering the Farmington. Butler says they started turning up in greater numbers after 9/11, discovered what a great fishery the river was, and kept coming back. The sense of refuge fly-rod toting New Yorkers find in the Farmington and its valley is shared by many. The whole watershed is laced with trails, dotted with mountains to climb, historic towns, and an abundance of natural beauty. “Here’s this river running right through suburbia, but it’s more a place of solace, a place where you can get away a bit,” says Eric Hammerling, executive director of the watershed association, a Simsbury-based non-profit organization that works to protect the river and help restore its resources. “The river,” he says, “helps people get in touch with their non-business-world selves.” Hammerling gets in touch with his real-world self in a few special spots. One is along the river near Collinsville. “I start at the axe factory, then walk along the Burlington Rail Trail. It’s a scene of the river’s industrial history.’’ A century and a half ago the river told another story. Then feltmakers, tanners, wool dyers, spoonmakers, and ironmongers worked along its banks in factories powered by the river’s waters. The mighty Collins Company alone built 1,300 different kinds of edged tools – from axes to bayonets – that were shipped all over the world. It began in 1826 and stayed in business until the Great Flood of 1955. Back in the river’s industrial heyday, there were so many canals, millraces and the like – the watershed still has more than 400 dams – that contemporary maps made it look almost like a different watershed, Hammerling says. Speaking of canals, the Farmington was the site of a doomed business venture in the mid 1800s. Seeking a cheaper way to export the region’s foodstuffs, lumber and hides and to import machinery and merchandise, and at the same time boost activity at New Haven’s wharves, entrepreneurs teamed up to build a canal linking the river with New Haven and started digging in 1825. The Farmington-New Haven portion opened three years later; by 1835, a 70-mile canal – New England‘s longest – linked Northampton and New Haven. It proved expensive to maintain; ice locked the canal shut in winter and in 1845 drought closed it down for most of the summer. By 1847 the canal went out of business; it couldn’t compete with the railroad. In fact, it was eventually replaced by one, which ran until 1982 and was recently converted to the 25-mile Farmington Valley Greenway, a freeway for bikers, skaters, and hikers. The Collinsville stretch is where Hammerling likes to stroll. Another of Hammerling’s river pursuits is drifting in a canoe along the slow water stretch of river from Route 4 in Farmington to the Pinchot Sycamore, the massive, white-flecked tree at the head of Nod Road in Simsbury. That arboreal giant spreads its twisted, muscular branches benevolently over the river. “You get a sense of the magnitude of life there, but it’s also a great place to experience the river,” he says. There are other fine places to drift along the river, or if you’re a whitewater canoeist or kayaker, to challenge the rapids. The most famous spot is Tariffville Gorge, one of the few places in southern New England to offer good whitewater boating all summer long. Several U.S. Olympic Team whitewater slalom trials have been held there. Looking up from a kayak while bobbing in a riverside eddy in the gorge, a boater would be hard pressed to read the incredible story its sheer rock walls reveal. The whole of the valley, in fact, has an amazing ancient past. Basically it’s an old scar, hundreds of millions of years old, left over from the break-up of Pangaea, the primeval supercontinent that fractured in the long ago past to form today’s seven continents. Not long after that initial rift, the area that would one day be Connecticut was maybe a thousand miles wide. Over eons of geologic time, the continental bump and grind we know today as plate tectonics mashed Connecticut into its present-day size. The ancient canyon, or rift valley, left by the breakup eventually filled in with debris from the eroding Appalachians, which, back in the day, were big as Mount Everest. Our climate then was significantly warmer – there were monsoons, and dinosaurs munched tropical vegetation. Then there were the lava flows, three of them over the millenia, each vaporizing every living thing in the valley. You can still make out the layers of lava in some of the bare rock faces of the Metacomet Ridge.  Later, much later, came the ice. Roughly 20,000 years ago, Connecticut-all of it – was under more than a mile of the stuff. A lot of debris got dragged around under the Ice Age glaciers, enough to form a massive dam near present day Farmington. The barrier halted the river’s southerly flow – until then it had flowed into the Quinnipiac River. As the glaciers melted, the water backed up higher and higher, creating a massive lake, Lake Hitchcock, that extended over most of the valley. As the water level slowly climbed up the ridge, it found a soft spot, and punched through to form Tariffville Gorge. The lake’s contents gushed out through that little breach, and when it was all over, the Farmington River had changed course; it now flowed north from the former glacial dam, then east through the gorge, and on into the Connecticut River. At least that’s the story the river and its gorge tell a geologist. An archaeologist might see a different tale, that of the proto-Americans who moved into the valley shortly after the lake drained, when the landscape looked, according to studies of ancient pollen found there, more like arctic taiga. Then there were no hardwood forests. Even the seasons were different. Those first settlers probably hunted caribou. They may also have hunted the American mastodon, an ancient elephant relative; the bones of one were discovered 95 years ago on the grounds of the Hill-Stead Museum in Farmington. But those Stone Age settlers were here. Just ask Ken Feder, a professor of anthropology at Central Connecticut State University. When the Simsbury resident was a student, he drove over the Farmington every day, and asked his mentors if the valley might be a good place for archaeological research. No, he was told. It’s a small river, people just passed through. Don’t expect much, they said. But Feder perservered, and discovered the valley was in fact a hotbed of ancient settlement. He’s been involved in the evaluation of more than 100 valley sites, and has excavated about 20. He’s learned the locals knapped arrowheads and spear points from hornfels, a kind of hyperheated, glasslike stone formed when those ancient lava flows fired the local sandstone as if it was so much pottery. They lived in small villages, hunting and gathering for their sustenance. Agriculture entered the picture recently, around 1300. Not long afterwards the Europeans arrived, bringing with them diseases that caused a population meltdown for those first Americans. Our archaeological record doesn’t end there though. For decades after the Europeans’ arrival, the valley was the raw edge of a new frontier. And it was a wild and wooly place. Satan’s Kingdom in Canton is named for a multiracial gang of thieves and ne’er-do-wells for whom the chasm was both home and hideout. Farther out in the wilderness, near what is now Riverton, lie the remains of an old settlement founded by an unhappy Wethersfield maiden and the Narragansett Indian with whom she eloped about 1750. Molly and James Chaugham set out for the edge of civilization, built a crude cabin – described as halfway between a woodpile and rail fence – near the base of Ragged Mountain. They lived there and raised their eight children near the old stagecoach road running between Hartford and Albany. At night, firelight glimmered through the windows and poorly chinked walls of their cabin, and passing coachmen came to think of it as a landmark. When they saw its light, they’d shout to their passengers that it was only 5 miles to New Hartford. The cabin, and the little settlement that eventually rose around it, came to be known as the Barkhamsted Lighthouse. Feder studied the site between 1986 and 1993, and verified much of the legend. The hamlet was occupied until 1860, and the remains of about a dozen of its old cellarholes can still be seen just in People’s State Forest, at the foot of the Jessie Gerard Trail leading up the mountain. According to the story, James Chaugham would climb Ragged Mountain when he suspected hostile tribes might be planning attacks on nearby settlers. He’d hike up to a series of rocky mountaintop bluffs and build a signal fire to warn them. Chaugham’s Overlook is an idyllic spot, with pristine views stretching for miles across hills and valleys. There’s hardly a house or road to be seen. It’s just as it might have looked when James Chaugham lit one of his signal fires. Down below, in a fold of the landscape, a sliver of the river glints in the sun. All in all, it’s a perfect spot to contemplate the Farmington, the river of stories. Steve Silk is a writer and garden designer who lives in Farmington. He is a frequent contributor to Seasons.  Pasted from <http://seasonsmagazines.com/archives/2008/Spring/riversjourney.shtml&gt;

A Family History Novice Stumbles onto her American Revolution Roots
http://www.landing.ancestry.myfamily.com/military/cstudy.aspx?html=cstudy9
Patricia Stone had only fading memories to guide her as she began searching for her roots in 1998 – but all that would change when she met Betty Smalley, a distant cousin, while searching in the RootsWeb.com message boards. It was Betty who gave Patricia the gift of a lifetime: the story of Reuben Barber, Patricia’s great-great-great-great-grandfather who had been a soldier in the American Revolutionary, fighting for militias in Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania. Digging deeper into Reuben’s life, Patricia uncovered an 1849 newspaper announcing his death. Under the headline “Another Hero Gone!” the Elmira Weekly Gazette published this fitting tribute: “He was among the first to espouse the cause of Liberty, and being of undaunted courage, and having an herculean frame, he was often brought into most trying circumstances.” Reuben was 99 years old when he died. “When I started, my goal wasn’t to document military history of the family,” says Patricia of her fortuitous find. “Sometimes you find what you are not looking for.”
Note from Coni: Pat Stone and I work closely together on the Lighthouse – she has donated much of her work towards mine.

The Hartford Courant -. story by South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com
http://www.courant.com-sun-sentinel.com/topic/hc-barlighthouse0816.artaug16,0,5509839
Dated: Copyright © 2008
WALT LANDGRAF, forest naturalist for the Department of Environmental Protection, walks though the Barkhamsted Lighthouse site in Peoples State Forest, where a mixed-race community thrived from 1779 to 1860. Graves on the site include those of soldiers from the Revolutionary and Civil wars. (KATHY HANLEY) BARKHAMSTED  For a tasty slice of local history, mix one Block Island-born Narragansett Indian, a wealthy woman from Wethersfield and a lighthouse that never guided any boats. Add a pinch of ostracism and a large dollop of late 18th-century life and bake for about 80 years. Serve warm and enjoy the story of the Barkhamsted Lighthouse. The year was 1740 and Molly Barber, a wealthy young woman from Wethersfield, was angry with her father because he would not let her marry the man she wanted. In protest, she married the next available suitor, James Chaugham, a Narragansett Indian from Block Island. After a secret marriage, the couple moved to New Hartford in the area called Satan’s Kingdom, before moving to Barkhamsted and settling in what would later be known as the Barkhamsted Lighthouse community along the west branch of the Farmington River. Here, at least one story goes, they had eight children and built a house in what was fast becoming a thriving community of Native American, African American and Anglo-American outcasts. The “lighthouse” enters the story in the 1770s when the Farmington River Turnpike was designated a public highway. As the Albany-Hartford route became more popular, the stagecoach drivers would see the lights shining in Molly and James’ house and, according to a poem by Lewis Sprague Mills, would declare “There’s the Light House! Five more miles to reach New Hartford.” Mills’ poem, “The Legend of Barkhamsted Light House,” was written in 1952 and is considered one of the more accurate versions of the story. While the core of this story can be substantiated, Walt Landgraf, a forest naturalist for the state Department of Environmental Protection and curator of the Stone Museum in Peoples State Forest, said some of the specifics have either been proven false or can not be factually supported. One major discrepancy is Molly’s birthplace. Landgraf said no records could be found of a Molly Barber or a woman fitting her description in Wethersfield or even Windsor, another W-town along the river. Another is when and where Molly and James’ children were born. Landgraf said there is evidence that the children were grown by the time the family settled in Barkhamsted. He also said that little information is known at all about James prior to 1770, when he bought property in New Hartford. But there is more to the story, said Kenneth Feder, an anthropology professor at Central Connecticut State University, who happened across the remnants of the lighthouse community in 1986 when he was leading an archeological study looking for prehistoric sites in the area. When they saw the foundations of the dwellings, his team dug around and quickly found several artifacts, including pots, coins and pieces of tools. And once he learned the story, he was hooked. “The cool thing about it was when we went out there to look at the site, I thought we would find that the story was [romanticized],” he said. “The funny thing is when we started delving into those records we found that essentially … it’s a true story.” He added that what he finds so interesting is that the tale of the lighthouse community is a story about “how people in New England on the social and economical margins were able to eke out a living.” Feder returned and studied the site again in 1990 and 1991 and researched town records in 1993 and 1994. He published a book about his finds in 1994 called “A Village of Outcasts: Historical Archeology and Documentary Research at the Lighthouse Site.” “That’s the coolest lesson for me about the lighthouse – it’s also a story about how our country is made up of not only these famous folks we always read about, but about ordinary people who do these extraordinary things living in extraordinary circumstances,” he said. Little of the original village can be seen today, except for several cellar holes, some stone foundations and a graveyard with about 60 unmarked headstones. Landgraf said about 800 people each year walk the Jesse Gerard Trail, which connects East River Road and Greenwoods Road and passes through the Lighthouse community site. “To me it’s [an example of] cultural richness to see these people from English backgrounds and Indian backgrounds and Negro backgrounds all getting together and living together,” Landgraf said. “To think they each brought aspects of their own culture to the group. … You can really get the whole scope of history through this [story].” End

Exhibit proposed on the Barkhamsted Lighthouse community.
By Barkhamsted Historical Society – Paul Hart
Dated: Feb. 10, 2009
On February 10, 2009, archaeologist Dr. Ken Feder and Historical Society volunteers Linne Landgraf and Paul Hart met to discuss a proposed exhibit on the Barkhamsted Lighthouse community.  The exhibit will be a temporary feature at the Squire’s Tavern.  It is our hope to have the display set up in the spring or early summer. The Lighthouse site is an important part of Barkhamsted history not only for the popular legends, but also because the community that became established there was a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic group of Native American, African American and Caucasian settlers that lived a different life than that of most of the other residents of the town.  The Lighthouse community persisted until the mid-1800s.  All that is left now are a few small cellar holes and a tiny cemetery with simple grave markers.  The site is located in People’s Forest and was recently designated by the Connecticut Historic Preservation Council as an archaeological preserve.

Historians recall Barkhamsted Lighthouse
By GINA L. SARTIRANA – Staff Reporter
http://www.tcextra.com/news/publish/winstedjournal/Historians_recall_Barkhamsted_Lighthouse/908600.shtml
Dated: May, 15, 2009
BARKHAMSTED – The Barkhamsted Historical Society will host the grand opening of its new Lighthouse Exhibit Sunday, May 17, from 1 to 4 p.m., at the Squires Tavern. State Archaeologist Ken Feder will give a 30-minute lecture about the Barkhamsted Lighthouse, followed by a bus ride and tour of the Lighthouse archaeolgical site on the East River Road in People´s State Forest.  According to Noreen Watson, a member of the Barkhamsted Historical Society, the Barkhamsted Lighthouse was built in the 1700s by James Chaugham, a Narragansett Indian, and his wife, Molly, a woman of European descent. Together they had several children and lived near the Farmington River, now East River Road, in a multicultural and multi-ethnic community with other outcasts in the area. The Chaugham home, explained Watson, was referred to as a lighthouse because travelers could see light from within the house through the chinks in the cabin. It became a landmark for stagecoach travelers on the current East River Road along the river due to its proximity to Riverton and New Hartford. While there are little more than a few cellar holes and simple grave markers at the site today, the Connecticut Historical Preservation Council designated the former Lighthouse site as an archeological preserve on Dec. 3, 2008. Feder has already conducted one dig  on location and several of his artifacts will be available to view during Sunday´s talk. A second dig is planned for this summer. Through the years several books have been written about the Lighthouse, including one written by Feder, “The Village of Outcasts.´´ The first known book, “The Legend of the Barkhamsted Light House,´´ was written by Louis S. Mills in 1897. Both publications go into detail about the conflict Molly had with her father in their hometown of Wethersfield, her marriage to James and their escape into the wilderness of Barkhamsted to live in the log cabin that became the Barkhamsted Lighthouse. Space for the lecture and bus tour during the grand opening is limited to the first 40 registered people; however, the exhibit will be open to the public. The historical society is open each Wednesday from 9 a.m. to noon, and Sundays from 1 to 4 p.m. © Copyright 2009 by TCExtra.com

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